Friday, 28 January, 2022
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Art 370, CAA, triple talaq, Ram Mandir are just one cycle of Modi’s ‘permanent revolution’

If the opposition is waiting for BJP's cultural nationalism to subside of its own and material issues to become salient again, it will have to wait for a long time.

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After Ram Mandir bhoomi pujan, Article 370 and triple talaq, many Bharatiya Janata Party observers are asking, ‘What next?’ The clue to the BJP’s future agenda lies in two factors: one is in the past, in how the party’s politics changed after the 1992 demolition of Babri Masjid; and two, in how Prime Minister Narendra Modi sees his own role.

After the demolition, the BJP faced what political scientist John McGuire described as ‘a moment of crisis’. It had reaped the political gains of the Ram temple movement, but now that the issue was over, it had to redefine itself.

The BJP would do so over the next four years, remaking itself from a hard Hindutva party to a party of governance — a national alternative to the Congress. When the 1996 Lok Sabha election came, Lal Krishna Advani was on a ‘surajya’ (good governance) yatra and Atal Bihari Vajpayee was emphasising the BJP’s commitment to pluralism and tolerance.

There are some optimists who hope that the successful completion of the BJP’s Right-wing projects under Modi — Citizenship (Amendment) Act, Article 370, triple talaq and now Ram Mandir — would similarly precipitate another ‘move to the centre’. Now that the BJP has reached the limits of the potential gains from cultural nationalism, it will finally focus on issues of governance.

This view is deeply mistaken. In an article last year, I had argued that while Modi’s first term was defined by the ‘soft Hindutva’ mixed with social welfare of Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, its second term would be defined by ‘hard Hindutva’ of V.D. Savarkar and the remaking of the Indian nation. The first term was used by Modi to patiently redefine the ‘centre’ and ‘mainstream’ of Indian politics, while holding off on the implementation of ‘core issues’. From this redefined centre, Modi has finally unleashed his transformative cultural nationalism agenda and this would likely last for the remainder of his second term. The next big political issues are likely to be UCC (Uniform Civil Code) and NRC (National Register of Citizens).

The BJP under Modi is remaking both ‘Hindu identity’ and ‘national identity’, a project that is still a long way away from completion. 

Also read: In his second term, Modi govt has moved from Deen Dayal Upadhyaya to Veer Savarkar

The shifting need for allies

During the mid-1990s, the BJP’s expansion was predicated on political moderation. In 1996, its coalition government led by Vajpayee fell in 13 days because no major party, except the Shiv Sena, Samta party and Shiromani Akali Dal, wanted to ally with it owing to its communal image. As political scientist Michael Gillan noted in his study Assessing the ‘National’ Expansion of Hindu Nationalism: The BJP in Southern and Eastern India, 1996-2001, the BJP aggressively sought coalition allies in this phase — on the basis of a common anti-Congress platform — and reconfigured Hindutva to suit regional contexts, as opposed to big national Hindutva issues. In fact, the BJP’s 1999 manifesto, astonishingly, had no mention of Ram Mandir.

The BJP is now in its phase of dominance, and is freed from the constraints of regional allies. The compromises have to be made by regional parties, recently seen with the AAP and BSP, in line with the BJP’s ideological agenda, not the other way around.

Also read: Why the Modi government gets away with lies, and how the opposition could change that

A national ‘model’ for states

Hindutva is now the pathway to the BJP’s consolidation and expansion. In West Bengal, the political fight is between BJP’s Hindutva and Mamata Banerjee’s Bengali pride resisting the suzerainty of Delhi. In Telangana, the BJP accuses the TRS of appeasing Asaduddin Owaisi’s AIMIM, celebrates the day of the state’s accession as liberation from Muslim oppression, and its state president promises the UCC. In Assam, the BJP’s entire politics is based upon the fear of the ‘Bangladeshi Muslim’. These state-level communal agendas have to be necessarily packaged within a national narrative.

Hence, the BJP would likely push the UCC before the 2021 election in West Bengal, challenging Mamata Banerjee’s TMC to defend special protections for minorities, a charge on which she is politically vulnerable. This will be supplemented in Bengal (and other key states) by what political scientists Sudha Pai and Sajjan Kumar have described as the Uttar Pradesh “model” of riot. “Rather than instigating major and violent state-wide riots as in the earlier phase, the BJP-RSS have attempted to create and sustain constant, low-key communal tension together with frequent, small, low-intensity incidents out of petty everyday issues that institutionalise communalism at the grass roots, to keep the pot boiling,” the authors wrote in their book Everyday Communalism: Riots in Contemporary Uttar Pradesh.

In fact, we are already seeing this model at play in Bengal, the latest example being the Telinipara riots. In Uttar Pradesh, we might see the completion of the Ram Mandir just before the 2022 assembly election, rekindling ‘Hindu consciousness’.

Also read: Modi faces no political costs for suffering he causes. He’s just like Iran’s Ali Khamenei

The ‘role’ of Modi

The widespread Hindu consolidation under Narendra Modi is still in its infancy. Caste and regional identities are still potent under the surface. If the BJP relaxes on its cultural nationalist agenda of ‘us versus them (Muslims)’, these regional and caste identities will regain political salience and hamper the party. Indeed, backward caste identities are being progressively integrated in the Hindutva project, a phenomenon known as ‘subaltern Hindutva’. The PM’s reference to Raja Suheldev — a backward caste icon who supposedly resisted ‘Muslim aggression’ — in his Ayodhya speech is just the most recent instance of this careful strategy.

Modi hardly ever names Rahul Gandhi, Manmohan Singh or Rajiv Gandhi because he is not competing with them. The competitor he sets up for himself is Jawaharlal Nehru, the pre-eminent architect of modern, secular India who defined the country for its first four decades of Independence.

Modi presents himself in similar historical terms, not as an economic reformer or a social welfare populist, but as a nation builder — or rebuilder — a ‘saffron Nehru’. The former politicians might be held accountable in one or two terms, but people understand that remaking the nation is a long drawn-out affair. Much like the country gave Nehru three terms to complete his project, Modi implicitly asks Indians to trust him with a similarly long time-frame.

Also read: Bhoomipujan 2020 is like Balakot 2019, the surgical strike that washes all sins

Economy not a national issue anymore

People seem to have bought into this framing of politics. In states they might punish the BJP for failure on economic issues — such as farmer distress and unemployment, which we saw in Maharashtra and Haryana — but national politics has been delinked from economic issues. As India slides into its worst economic recession since Independence, Modi’s popularity is at an all-time high.

This is helpful for the BJP since the economic recession means almost certainly that the Modi government will not go into 2024 with any major economic achievements. It takes many years for the economy to recover from such a deep recession. Since a lot of fiscal space will be taken in ameliorating the impact of the public health/economic crisis, the BJP won’t have the space to launch any new big social sector schemes or expand the welfare state.

The fact that Modi now almost never talks about ‘India by 2022’ — a set of ambitious targets in the sectors of housing, electricity, internet, and drinking water among others — is an indicator that those targets wouldn’t likely be achieved. Neither it is likely that Modi would spend much political capital on big economic reforms, lest economic issues come back to the centre of political debate.

If the opposition is waiting for the cultural nationalistic issues to subside of its own accord and material issues to become salient again, it will have to wait for a long time. It is almost predetermined that the BJP will go into 2024 on the plank of Hindu nationalism, because it is not just the most potent option but also, in many ways, its only option.

Mao had described his system of rule as “permanent revolution”. “In making revolution, one must strike when the iron is hot — one revolution must follow another, the revolution must continually advance.” This was how the new Chinese nation would be created after centuries of feudalism and imperialism.

In the Hindutva ideology espoused by Modi, Indian is emerging after centuries of Muslim/British/secularist rule of Hindu oppression — ‘1200 years of slave mentality’, in Modi’s words. Article 370, CAA, and Ram Temple bhoomi pujan are just one cycle of the new “permanent revolution” — many such cycles of ‘revolution’ await to play their part in the building of ‘New India’.

The author is a research associate at the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. Views are personal.

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  1. Modi-BJP-RSS can continue for many more years with no economic agenda, and solely run on sadism towards Muslims. This will be the path of Modi’s permanent revolution. They have control of the Hindu pscyhe : communalism. They can keep telling the Hindus it is because of the Muslims India could not come up, so if we continue with our sadism towards Muslims, Hindus will be able to come up. Most Hindus will go along. If you believe in gobar and gomutra, you will believe in anything.

    If the Hindus had the genuine capability to rule, they would rally round their people – and the others – and lead the country. Non Hindus would respect them. Emperor Akbar did that, he rallied round different communities, that is why his period was a stable one.

    In failed peoples, one observes they exteriorise their incompetence, and never do anything to improve. They are permanently angry with someone else for their ineptitude. The current Hindus are like that.

    If you look at the English around 1000 AD, they too were colonised and vandalised by the French and the Vikings from Denmark and Norway. But they did not sit around crying over spilt milk., eventually they became a learned nation that went on to great heights, despite their small size.

  2. Modi neither Brahmin Sitaraman will be boasting about 5 trillion economy !

    No talk about the bullet train !!

    Hindus will be content with inauguration of the temple. Maybe they will create one more riot over another mosque.

    That is the total capability of such Hindus. And they want to compare themselves with Nehru.

    • And you are so inept that you keep on spewing your foolishness across the internet.
      You will be soon a legendary troll!

  3. This media very famous for this kind of articles…
    anyway i will stand for Modi again and again
    First time there is an indian leader who put this ancient nation and it`s culture on the top.
    First time, the history of invasion done by the british and the religious invasion can be disscussed without being killend or bombed away. No fake secularism or political correctness.
    Without spreading we have to speak about this invasion and genocide of our culture ( like the destruction of the ram temple ) . We have to stop this appeasement politics and ban countrys who are sponsoring these extremism in India.

    Myself living outside of india ( Germany ) and i`m even a Tamil ( Tamils are portrayed as very proud of their own language and culture ) but still i would anytime support him like most the indian peope living inside or outside India.

    He is the leader right now that Bharat needs.



  4. Hinduism is the oldest and the most secular Religion in the world and has never killed or forcefully converted anyone into Hinduism. The two imported Religions into India have known for converting people especially poor Hindus by falsely preaching the benefits of ISLAM and Christianity and also using foreign money which Modiji has put a stop to. The truth is every person is born a Hindu until he is Christened to be a Christian or becoming a Muslim. Hinduism has survived for thousands of years without converting anyone or killing anyone. The life history of Ashoka the great is a good example of this, whereas the Mughals in North India and Tipu Sultan in South India are known to desecrated and plundered Hindu Temples. Religions founded by violence will continue to preach and show violence and ISLAM is a good example of this. A Religion founded by Mohammed after marrying the rich widow Kadeeja which gave him money and power. Mohammed is known to have killed followers who opposed him when he claimed that he spoke to Allah and he was the messenger of GOD. Unfortunately people who have such beliefs today will end up in a Mental institution. My reading and understanding is that Mohammed’s last wife was an 8 year old girl who was a gift from her father to Mohammed.

  5. Asim seems to drunk on his own sophistry and paranoia.

    Such delusional ramblings detached from reality fail to acknowledge the other salient initiatives of PM Modi like the Bankruptcy Law, the GST, the NEP, the rationalization of the Ration card, the DBT scheme, the abolition of the control of Mandis, the coldchain infrastructure networks, the expansion of electrification, the building of lakhs of toilets, the stress on hygiene, the development of highways, the construction of ports, the construction of power plants, the development of ease of doing business in terms of FDI policy, the restructuring of the railways, the massive and monumental reduction of taxes- both personal and corporate!

    Apparently only Art 370, CAA, NRC, and Ram Janmabhoomi are what you see while dreaming up new shadow monsters to fight in the future!

  6. I think what needs to be focused on is what is bringing the government into power. Why is the democracy electing the BJP. I think once this point is analyzed, a lot will be clear as to why this ruling party is important for India. Not that they are always right. No party ever is, no leader ever is. They are bound to stumble and fall, make decisions they make later regret or may be forced to take decisions they don’t like themselves. Constantly judging them negatively though is not the answer. Try to figure out what makes them tick, how are they meeting the needs of the general population that was not being attended to for years on end. Secularism is not a romantic concept. To make diversity work, people constantly need to be unbiased and think of the greater good without being trapped in their own insecurities and fears. Maintaining secularism is the job of all citizens not just those belonging to the majority or even minority. If certain sections of a society keep indulging in their own fears and anxieties, they will never be able to look beyond it to think of the nation first. It takes remarkable courage to do that I admit but having that courage is the need of the hour. Very often instead I hear supposed liberal and progressive voices criticizing the PM and ending their sad pathetic critique by calling the PM a chai wala – how ironic and deeply shameful. It most often gives way to the deep seated elitist attitude they harbor which completely alienates them from the general population in thought, emotion, and intelligence. These people are honestly no good for the country. Think big and beyond your universe. Only then maintaining a robust secularism will be possible.

  7. Muslims want secularism but they do not want uniform civil code. Modi will force UCC upon them. And no opposition party will oppose them either.

  8. Let’s understand

    1) RAMRAJYA is a concept of welfare state. Education and security.

    2) RAM RAJYA doesn’t have any concept of religious conversions. Nor taxes on non believers. Nor any restrictions on religious practices.


    4) There is one place in INDIA where the secular votes ARE in majority ie Kashmir. And HINDUS were subjected to ethnic cleansing there.

    5) So if HINDUS ARE SAYING we are not interested in proselytizing. But keep you ideology at your home and become less religious and more scientific. WHY IS THAT ANTI SECULAR.

    • Hindus are becoming scientific – with gomutra, and Covid papad.

      Keep your jungli ways at home and don’t bring it to the public.

      • You may wish to consider how civil it is to use the term “jungli” on a fellow reader of this platform, just because you differ ideological from him/ her.

        • Well, those who are jungli are very proud of it. This fellow is preaching Ram Rajya and telling us he is scientific.

          I was not referring to you.

      • But friend Gomutra has medicinal value. Its been proved beyond doubt. Hindus have always been scientific. Remember, according to Hindu texts & ancient writings, SUN was the centre of Universe…Whereas all others preach the otherway round… Hindus gave ayurveda much before anybody started the healing practices… AYURVEDIC medicines have been found to be effective in lot more diseases than allopathic medicines…. Hindus are closer to nature in their views and practices…. The temples are wellness centres, both spiritual and physical….. So friend ,please dont ever question the scientific temperament of the Hindus….

        • For people outside India, the Hindu habits , like sprinkling cow’s urine, are very dirty.

          All food imports from India should be monitored and boycotted.

          When Amit Shah got Covid, he did not use gomutra, gobar, papad, Ayurveda, he went straight to the allopathic hospital. Most Hindus are hypocritical.

  9. probably rop/rol will never accept their agenda of them to be no one religion. Further their tone of minority will change depending on who is the minority and who is the majority. Look around the world, you can never see in any rop/rol religion majority others becoming rulers

  10. Whats wrong with the Uniform Civil Code? The whole country welcomes it.
    The author. by calling it a BJP project, has clearly made his stance clear: he finds it unacceptable!!

    Thank God that the country has a leader like Mr Mode – 377/Ram Temple/Swach India/ Atmanirbhar India/ housing, lights, electricity, water (2024) and gas for all is a reality due to the untiring efforts of our PM.

    With such authors and opinions, am sure the 3rd term with 450+ is now guaranteed: the public can see through such frauds and the take over of the English media by the Islamic+Left alliance.

  11. Maharashtra wasn’t a loss – the pre-election allies won a majority as an alliance.
    Haryana – they were the SLP.

    How are these punishments for them? Wishful thinking?

  12. All this whataboutery can be summed up in one sentence. Modi wants to bring Socialism in India without the Western left bias towards Muslims. And if the Western left doesnt shift away from Muslim bias and appeasement in their own respective countries, they will become redundant too. If Trump wins in November, the old idea of muslim appeasement by Western left will also slowly die. And the only way for Trump to lose if it the Democrats/ Left cheats with postal ballots.

    • The perceived global political appeasement / western left bias, has global political reasons. No amount of global political discourse without the inclusion of global political interest of global muslims, will come to any fruitful conclusion. To talk about someone will not result in any solutions. When have the muslim’s interests been included in any conversation/discourse? Who represents muslims or muslim interests and I am not talking about the right to practice religion, I think we should go beyond that by now. I am talking about human rights. Muslims are the second biggest religious group on this planet and yet one chooses to engage with Muslims full of biases, prejudices and a disingenuous effort to paint muslims as monsters and expects to move forward?

      As long as the world does not come clear on their contribution on the suffering of muslims, as is currently evident, and why the muslims are “taunted” globally, despite having no voice, no power, no rights, no leader and asked to prove themselves innocent and worthy of living in this world, I can assure you “resistance”. Muslims are human and expect the spectrum of human responses. The rest is just a blur in time. Mr. Modi, Mr. Trump, west, left etc.

  13. Brother Asim,
    Muslims are as dear to India as are Hindus.
    To develope our country both have to progress simultaneously. Modi is working on the lines of this motto: Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Visvas … without trumpeting it like the so called Secularists.
    CAA is a non issue trumpeted by these forces,
    do not get carried away. At the same time we need to correct certain ill thought out practices by our short sighted leaders in the past to march ahead on path of uniform developement.

  14. The sad fact is that there is a world beyond the pond which is the home of the frogs and just outside the pond is a big dragon who loves to eat frogs. Kaiser, Czar, Mussolini , Hitler all failed to see the dragon and paid the price.

  15. Typical of a Muslim paid by Congress to write such a review.Like All Islamic Nations,India will be a HINDU Nation and if you don’t like it then you are free to move now.

  16. Dear author, fear mongering won’t work.
    Try writing an article on “why UCC shouldn’t be there” , come up with logic .

  17. BJPs solution to India’s problems last 6 years:

    No job: Jai Shri Ram
    No hospital bed: Jai Shri Ram
    China border problem: Jai Shri Ram
    Kashmir Issue: Jai Shri Ram
    GDP down: Jai Shri Ram
    Women’s Security: Jai Shri Ram
    Bank failures: Jai Shri Ram

    Why did others waste 70 years trying to solve problems in various ways when the solution is so simple : Bolo Jai Shri Ram

  18. You are brushing aside the economic performance of BJP by just looking at headline items like GDP. But for the general public, life has been steadily improving. Prices of essential items are low, Good public transport is being built all over the country, Swachh Bharat is slowly improving cleanliness, Power supply is much better, Ayushman bharat, Jan Dhan, Direct Benefit Transfer, LPG connections, PM-KISAN all are helping people. By equating BJP’s success with just Hindutva, you are making the same mistake as liberal media in US. They just attribute Trump’s success to racism without paying attention to his actions that have improved quality of life for millions of his Americans. In the present government also the economic reforms and governance initiatives continue steadily but silently.

  19. This article just underlines the fact that Indians were naive in 1947 and they continue to be so in 2014. Nehru’s socialism gave India it’s Hindu rate of growth and Modi’s Hindutva will make it look like a Hindu Pakistan. The mirage of a developed India will continue to haunt future generations as well.

    Meanwhile liberal writers in the mainstream media can still only impotently blame the opposition for everything that Modi does. If there was no RG, would RSS forsake Hindutva agenda?

  20. SPOT ON “Art 370, CAA, triple talaq, Ram Mandir are just one cycle of Modi’s ‘permanent revolution’” for over 70 ears these have been the impediments in the economic growth. Facilitating corruption under 370, ill-treatment of women and a continuous source of division with the society in the name of Mandir.
    So long as Modi is not dipping into the state coffers , promoting family trusts, grabbing real estate under various pretexts, no matter what mistakes he makes he will enjoy the trust of the people. HE IS PUTTING A STOP TO THE 85% LEAKAGES and THAT IS BIG MONEY COMING BACK TO PEOPLE. Visible honesty can only be countered by even better honesty and not fancy foreign degrees and flowery language.
    Earlier the opponents learn better it will for the country.

    • ‘So long as Modi is not dipping into the state coffers ….’

      Did you hear about the PM Cares fund ?

      Money for the boys – public money siphoned through Rafale to Anil Ambani.

      Demonetisation was the biggest scam.

  21. Asim Ali doesn’t talk of what his religion thinks of non-Momins whom they hatefully call kafirs.

    QURAN (98:6) “Surely the unbelievers(IN MUSLIMS) among the people of the Book and the idolaters, will abide in the fire of Hell. THEY ARE THE WORST OF CREATURES .”

    The Us vs Them is inherent in Islam & most Muslims hate Hindus for but puja and worshiping to Shaitan.

    Aayats after Aayats from Quran are full of bigotry & hate against Kafir Hindus – polytheists, but pujaks.

    • Please do not use ad-hominum in a healthy discussion. If you really want to counter him do it with facts and reasons. By the way, a religion is what that its believers/followers make of it. Hinduism is tolerant because Hindus interpret their religion so and act accordingly. The mob lynchers are so because they interpret their religion so. So we should not judge any religion by its scriptures rather its interpreters and users. Is not it?

    • Asim Ali does not talk either how many Hindu temples have been demolished in Pakistan and Bangladesh since Babri mosque demolition. His hypocrisy is typical of all Muslims.

    • In my State long back a drama “I am not a thief ” was broadcast by the local T.V. Station. The next day very many engineers wrote letters threatening defamation suits as each of them was sure that he was the corrupt engineer shown in the play. As long as a person is not accused by name he should not get worked up and feel that he is the person referred to like those engineers each of whom felt that he was the corrupt engineer portrayed in the play.

    • Katwa history main kabhi koi katwa sach bola hai, ? Kyun aap apna time waste kar rahe ho. Mathura aur Kashi b baaki hai, uski sangharsh chalu karte hain.

  22. India was very unfortunate to have had a characterless incompetent man as its first PM, who landed the country in a disaster after disaster. Nehru did not have the support of even one of the Pradesh Congress Committees to be the first PM. One can only surmise that he blackmailed his way to become the first PM as a collaborator of the British. I don’t think there is another country in the recent world history where an incompetent megalomaniac was hoisted on a country with monumentally disastrous consequences that continue till today. Modi’s project is to undo the nehruvian disaster and set the country in a better direction – which will take at least 20 years of active steering. I sincerely hope BJP will get at least another two terms to see this project through.

    • So true. Imagine if Sardar Patel had been the first PM of India?

      I also like to compare Israel and India – both born at the same time. Israel today is the start up nation with a population smaller than Delhi.
      India meanwhile had one of its ‘minorities’ rise to 14% of the population with no parallel 14% development.

    • Mr/Ms RJ: When you pontificated:

      “.. I don’t think there is another country in the recent world history where an incompetent megalomaniac was hoisted on a country with monumentally disastrous consequences ..”

      were you talking of the Delhi University graduate Narendra Modi? The chap who fiddled while Muslim homes were being burnt and innocent Muslims wre being butchered by his minions?

    • ‘Modi’s project is to undo the nehruvian disaster and set the country in a better direction – which will take at least 20 years of active steering. I sincerely hope BJP will get at least another two terms to see this project through.’

      Modi said in 2014 ‘give me just 60 months, I can give you 60 years of Congress development’.

      Now that he has failed, you are asking for 20 years !!

      You are a typical Hindutva retard.

  23. While Modi play the game, oppositions, especially Rahul only react. This will continue the scene in the coming days too. He will act and others will react. Really economy is no longer the issue.

    • Sadly this is so true that the south Asian future really looks grim. And I can not believe that we could recover from this death valley any time soon at least in this decade.

  24. Modi is a good man within his bounded rationality.
    The trouble is India in 21st century needs a leader who need not focus his all in rectifying the past errors.
    No doubt these have been substantial.
    The trouble also is Modi is basically a bania, a Gujarati do gooder like the Ambanis but in the political arena.
    Sadly his demonetization and many other major issues, including management of the Lock down and the impact on the migrants, have failed to deliver. News has it he is aping few of the Congress policies …..dunno!
    But India needs a leader for Tomorrow.
    Sadly Modi has LOST IT ALTOGETHER.He doesn’t have it in him to deliver in 2020s….Putin, Trump can’t be role models. He is doing that…got entangled in trying to beat Xi at his game,,,,,,the Chinks understood his weaknesses and struck. But Modi is a good man. He just needs that elusive MAGIC TOUCH…..hope he gets it …..for my progenies’ , if I can be selfish

    • Demonetization, GST and Lockdown were all decisions whose time has come and were vital for national development. Even the worst critics agree that digital India would only have been possible with something like demonetization. Lock down saved thousands of lives in delaying the spread of COVId. It is opposition and states who asked migrants to go home – who cried and encouraged them to travel. That’s why Maharastra has the highest case load, because they were the epicenter!
      There is a mistaken belief that Chinese somehow gave a blow to India and Modi – when in fact it is Modi Govt that has inspired others to ban Chinese apps, decouple from China. Similarly it would be silly to assume that our soldiers were routed in Ladhak – when they confronted directly eye for an eye with the Chinese forcing China to hide it’s casualties. The Chinese may have built up their forces in Ladhak but they occupy barren land that is costing then billions of dollars not just in maintenance of these soldiers but also in lost trade and business in India and around the world.

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