Wednesday, March 29, 2023
HomePageTurnerBook ExcerptsThat Muslims enslaved Hindus for last 1000 yrs is historically unacceptable: Romila...

That Muslims enslaved Hindus for last 1000 yrs is historically unacceptable: Romila Thapar

The book ‘Inquilab: A Decade of Protest’ chronicles some of the most powerful speeches and articles by Kavita Krishnan, Romila Thapar, Kanhaiya Kumar, Mahua Maitra, and others.

Text Size:

In 2016, as a response to the unrest on campus that triggered countrywide debate, the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) Teachers’ Association organized a lecture series to explore the trajectory of nationalism. Thapar, emeritus professor of history at JNU and renowned historian, spoke of the connection between history and nationalism. In her talk titled ‘The Past as Seen in Ideologies Claiming to Be Nationalist’, she explains why the political requirements of today cannot be imposed on the history of the past.

I am delighted to be here on this occasion, having been invited to participate in the teach-in on nationalism. When I come to JNU these days, I feel a bit like a dinosaur – having been one among the founding generation of teachers.

Now, let me come to something that is much more topical – and that is the connection between history and nationalism. Nationalism emerges as a concept or an idea in modern times as a response to historical changes. It is difficult to locate it in pre-modern societies. So, we don’t look for nationalism in the centuries long past, we look for it when society changes to the point where it is required.

But let me turn to the Indian situation. The evolution of nationalist ideas in India was tied to colonialism. Therefore, the influence of the colonial interpretation of Indian history is present in all kinds of nationalism to a lesser or a greater degree. In pre-colonial times there were multiple identities of caste, language, religious sects and regions. Religious identities, I would like to argue, were not based on large monolithic religions but on a range of religious sects. In sum, we now recognize that diversity characterized Indian cultures. Up to a point, it can be said that modern anti-colonial nationalism drew the diversities together. 

However, we cannot stop there, because if diversity is characteristic, the next question is: How did diverse groups negotiate their space and their relationships? This is a fundamental question where some explore these relationships whereas others project a single identity, argue that it is the identity of the majority and should therefore have priority. Let’s look at how this came about. 

The colonial reading of Indian history denied the diversity of India. 

There were no histories, of course, of India as a unified territory prior to colonial rule. Colonial history tried to tidy up the diversity, not by asking how these diversities related to each other, but by envisioning all religions in India as large monolithic religions and fitting the sects into one or the other, instead of seeing them as autonomous or only partially allied to another religion. Colonial scholars dramatized the confrontation of what they called the Hindu religion and the Muslim religion in order to support the two-nation theory, required by colonial policy. Relationships between religious groups are never so simple.

Also read: Why highly placed Muslims became ‘Krishna bhaktas’ in the Mughal period

The two-nation theory persisted, and was strengthened by the introduction of the concept of the majority community and minority communities after the British Indian census. It divided Indians and encouraged Indians into thinking about their identity as distinct, consolidated, monolithic religious identities. This suited colonial policy and therefore was encouraged. 

In the mid-nineteenth century, European philology became interested in Vedic Sanskrit and its links with Indo-European languages. Many philologists and Sanskritists, such as Friedrich Max Müller and others, projected the idea that the Vedic corpus, authored by the Aryans, was the foundation of Indian civilization. The history of the origin of the Aryans and their innate superiority became an important aspect of colonial scholarship and of nationalist historians. It was popularized, initially by the theosophist Colonel Olcott. He maintained that not only were the Aryans indigenous to India, but that they also migrated westwards and eventually civilized the West. This was useful in projecting the idea that India has always had a singular history, of which the most important has been that of the ancient Hindus. 

Various theories were put about on the origins of the Aryans. Max Müller said they came from Central Asia; Dayanand Saraswati preferred Tibet. Tilak, as we all know, was much more adventurous in suggesting the Arctic regions. When it became fashionable in the 1920s and ’30s to talk about the Aryans being indigenous to India, it was a little embarrassing to have Tilak placing them in the Arctic. So someone had the bright idea of saying that in those days the North Pole was actually located in Bihar. Various Indo-European languages, from Sanskrit to Celtic, were said to be of the same language family. It was assumed that those who spoke the same language were biologically related. 

One may well ask why there was the need to project an indigenous descent for the Aryans. It was important to the theory that there was a direct link between the Aryans and the upper-caste Hindus that followed generation after generation up until present times. Max Müller in England and Keshab Chandra Sen in India argued that since both the British and the upper-caste Indians were Aryans, they were all eventually kin- related and, therefore, were like ‘parted cousins’ now coming together. 

This theory met with an obstacle in the 1920s with the discovery of the Indus Valley civilization, or the Harappa culture as it is also called. This was prior to the Aryans and it was not Vedic. Therefore, this had now to be the foundation of Indian civilization. This, naturally, created a problem for those who believe that Vedic Aryanism is the foundation. That is one reason why today, some archaeologists and Sanskritists are trying to take the dates of the Vedas back to pre-Harappan times. Newspaper reports have stated that attempts are being made to take it back at least to 7500 bc. But the other problem is the unknown origin of the Harappans and that their language remains undeciphered. It’s much simpler now to maintain that the Harappans were also Aryans. There were many archaeological cultures in the subcontinent, so were they all Aryans? 

How do these ideas and problems connect to the question of nationalism? By the late nineteenth century, there was an established middle class in India. The idea of nationalism began to emerge from this group. So, once again it is the particular historical situation in modern times that leads to the emergence of nationalist ideas. At first, the nationalists requested greater representation in governance and then gradually, as we all know, it grew into a mass movement, and the mass movement then finally ended up demanding an independent nation, which was a logical outcome. Anti-colonial nationalism endorsed the idea of a nation and defined it as a democracy with a secular, egalitarian society. This anti-colonial nationalism maintained that the primary identity of all citizens was being Indian, irrespective of whatever identities they may have claimed prior to this. Being Indian was an overarching and inclusive identity incorporating people of all religions, castes and languages on an equal basis with equal rights, and this is the central component for what was originally projected as secular, anti-colonial Indian nationalism. This was a new identity obviously, and was seen and projected as such. 

But, given the history that was written by colonial scholarship and taught to the colonials by the colonizer – the fundamentals of which had not been fully challenged – there inevitably arose two kinds of what some people call ‘religious nationalisms’, and some people prefer to call (them)’ communalisms’ – the Hindu and the Muslim – and some may even refer to them as ‘pseudo-nationalisms’. Both endorsed the old, British two-nation theory. One aimed at establishing a separate Islamic state and managed to establish Pakistan; the other aimed at uniting the subcontinent under Hindu rule – what was to become the idea of the Hindu rashtra. Unlike anti-colonial secular nationalism that was inclusive of all as equals, for these communal ideologies, those of their own religion had priority, and to that extent these nationalisms were exclusive. They were not anti-colonial – some of them regarding the colonial power as their patron. Their hostility was towards each other.

Also read: In Modi’s opposition-mukt India, JNU must remain the Eternal Protester

These views were basic to the two organizations that propagated these ideas: the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha. The latter was gradually superseded by the RSS, and later there emerged a conglomeration of organizations referred to as the Sangh Parivar.

As with all nationalisms of all kinds, Hindu religious nationalism also turned to history. But interestingly, it appropriated the two dominant colonial theories – the Aryan foundation of Indian civilization and the two-nation theory. These they now describe as the indigenous history of India. Ironically, it is claimed that these histories are cleansed of the cultural pollution of Indian historians influenced by Western ideas! That their own ideas are rooted in colonial theories is conveniently ignored. 

The core of this ideology is the identity of the Hindu. The Hindu is the only one who can claim the territory of British India as the land of his ancestry – pitribhumi, and the land of his religion – punyabhumi. Muslims and Christians are described as foreigners since they came from outside the territory of British India and their religions originated in other lands. The ancestors of the Hindu and his religion having been indigenous to India, he, therefore, is the primary citizen. The true claimants to the ancient civilization can only be Hindus, descendants of the Aryans, and this is one reason why it has to be proved that the Aryans were indigenous to India, irrespective of whether they were or not. Being indigenous, they are the inheritors of the land. There are, however, glitches in this argument. Those of us who have pointed out the problems get our daily dose of abuse on the internet, and we are described as ignorant JNU professors and worse, even if in fact most are not from JNU. 


The point that I am trying to make is that the reading and interpretation of the past requires a trained understanding of the sources and a sensitivity to understanding what has been written. The political requirements of today cannot be imposed on the history of the past. To maintain a generalized statement that the period of the last thousand years was one of the victimization and enslavement of the Hindus by the Muslims is historically unacceptable. This kind of generalization feeds communal nationalism. That is why I am cautioning against it. Unfounded generalizations have to be replaced by analytical history. 

This excerpt from ‘Inquilab: A Decade Of Protests’, with a foreword by Swara Bhasker, has been published with permission from HarperCollins India.

Subscribe to our channels on YouTube & Telegram

Support Our Journalism

India needs fair, non-hyphenated and questioning journalism, packed with on-ground reporting. ThePrint – with exceptional reporters, columnists and editors – is doing just that.

Sustaining this needs support from wonderful readers like you.

Whether you live in India or overseas, you can take a paid subscription by clicking here.

Support Our Journalism


  1. Queen of falsehood.

    She used to accept Ghaggar-Hakra river as River Saraswati.
    In the late 90s when it was proved that the settlements beside Saraswati is heavy with archeological evidence of Vaidic culture dated way back 3000BC or older she refused to consider Ghaggar- Hakra as Saraswati and told Vaidic Saraswati is Helmand (With circustic arguments).
    Her only intention is to prove Hindus are not Indigenous but outsider just like Islam.

    • Of course Romila Thapar can write what she wants. She will even tell what is seen in Belur and Halebied is a lie. Ohh I forgot. Nalanda university was destroyed by Some flood. How come they blame the minority or should we call them the second majority?

  2. Writer of the above has always tried to show against traditional indian culture so that can get international awards . Khilji looted devgiri.
    Were Khilji, bahamani, gazani , Aurangzeb friends of native Indian peoples?

  3. A university thesis is all about stating a viewpoint. The article only achieves it. Yet deep down, as trained, Promilla Thapar begins with an assertion between Nationalism and Colonialism. Is it related to the era of Muslim rule (if one dislikes the word dominate) that Nehruvian Historians trained and taught us at an impressionable age where Babar and Humayun finds very little mention. Sing praise for Akbar. Mention of Jahangir and Shah Jahan and his Taj Mahal and don’t tell about the regicide to win the throne. Aurangzeb was a tyrant. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a poet and scholar – who of course surrendered to the British. But never speak of the Gupta dynasty and its destruction at the hands of Asoka when he denounced war and embraced peace.

    India is not split. It’s a group of people proclaiming to be educated and pontificating in earnest who are ill at ease. Why? They fear losing to rise of Indian masses. A rude awakening that begin in earnest over the treacherous act of 26/11 and followed it by Delhi Riots in February 2020. They do so for laurels and honouring mandates from those who hold them as puppets.

    Can anything damning be said?

  4. Wonderful portray Indian history, lack knowledge ,not done any resarch, taken the helpe of distraughted fact and figure, club with some hot spice made religious curries palatable to to her admirers item called Indian History. Really hundreds logical evidence of ancient India’s cultural , historical, existence is becoming painfull to them , very carefully avoided not make her history is to make woefully incorrect accuracey , she has made Indian History mokery before world . She should have very careful what is writing a National History of country or a rosy love story.

  5. This article is cleverly trying to project history as seen by her. I reject it completely

    Can she explain what are hindu idols doing in qutub minar. They have systematically brain washed 3-4 generations of Indians.

    Roads and building are named after persona who have significantly contributed to our society. Why we have roads named after Aurangazeb, Babur etc and not after Dahirsen, Porus.

    But I summarily reject this. I am not a Hindu zeolot but understand the clever subterfuge she is trying to creat

  6. Romila Thapar is known to be sensationalist historian under the garb of leftists. Wishing her happy 88th birthday today, I never regret to reject her as anti-nationalist Indian history teacher. During our student days in Delhi, we used to hear about her personal history who used to sell articles in different names against India’s interest. What shall she gain out of it ? Time has changed. Nobody is going to accept her personal views in the greater interest of Indian nationalism : India as a nation is self sufficient to march forward as a Hindu Rashtra. Forget about such historians who is identified with anti nationals : the panelists as well as the person who has written the forward in the book. Below standard. Are you serious to buy a copy ???

  7. The print is nothing but a mouth piece of leftists,naxals and anti nationals.

    P.S: Romila Thapar is nothing but a budhiya who has gone insane due to heavy consumption of cheap weed!

  8. There is a big tukde tukde gang in JNU since Indipendance.
    Romila taper is a Nehruvian scholar. She is responsible for spoiling the real Indian history.
    She is responsible for huge anti Hindu sentiments in text books.

  9. Very pity romila that you will stoop to any level to satisfy your benefactors. But please don’t fail to keep in your mind provided it is in working condition on its own that you can’t fool all the people all the time.

  10. A pure bullshit.
    It’s quite shameful to consider Romila Thapar as a historian. She is the person who brought down Yudhishtir to Ashoka’ disciple❗

  11. If we accept this half-baked truth and her analysis, then why was Zizija tax was imposed on Hindus during Muslim rules ? Does this pseudo secularist have any answer for this.

  12. Leftist like historians taking birth again and again on their home ground JNU beautifully cemented by all communist and Marxist under the umbrella of NEHRUVIAN era.

    They are bound to disrespect their own country any how.

  13. Ms Thapar
    With due respect, can you please swear if your views have nothing to do with Nehruvian thinking of modern India and your views are purely professional.
    Based on what we studied in your articles and school text books I am confused if you are influenced by Nehruvian thoughts or those thoughts were based on your work.

  14. Historians are turning out to be more dangerous than the aggressors. What happened in J&K right in front of us proves their aggression in the past. Why does The Print give credence to such novelists?

  15. Mohammed Ghori had attacked India in 11th Century…..1000 years ago….what was his aim?? Obviously, looting, killing and subjugation of Hindus…Most of these attacks failed till Moguls finally succeeded in ruling in Delhi….Historians like Romila Thapar want to REWRITE THE HISTORY TO SHOW FOREIGN INVADERS AS LIBERATORS!!!! SUCH IS THEIR ‘SECULARISM ‘…..OR WHAT IS NOW REFERRED TO AS SICKULARISM!!!

  16. India before Islamic invaders, comprised of a lot of distinct kingdoms,fighting against each other. But it were the armies of the kings who were fighting then. With the advent of the Islamic rulers, came alongside the destruction of places of worship(temples), forced conversion of common people and massacre of those who did not convert. It was not limited to conflict of armies but was a religious crusade which believed in the supremacy of Allah. That, madam,is the genesis of the Hindu-Muslim divide. Nothing to do with Aryan, Vedic or Indus Valley civilization.

  17. Romana is not connected to reality beyond doubt. In 21 st century ifp oeple still kidnap and sell yezhudis, kurds, Christians as sex slaves, sell children from men to men. In Isis market just imagine wat wud have been in 7 th century. Terrible. All these things in other countries are done by criminals. These acts are done by poeple who claim themself to be holy. There are poeple in India also who say they are soldiersbof God, sikhs bit they protect dharma. Good values. They also fight but not like thesenpoeple Isis.

  18. Title is misleading,muslim came in 12th century according muslim texts .16th century mughal came not all muslims .18th century east india company took bengal .Muslims never ruled even proper 500 years entire india. Under sultans Orissa ,Ahom and south indian Empire were in power. In Mugal times Vijayanagra was standing with Ahom in Assam. Under Britisher Punjab western ,Rajasthan ,southern and Jammu these kings were ruling with all their might. If muslims really ruled than why 80% Indians are Hindu.

    Rajdeep Desai is scoundrel and fake as a journalist his predictions are dream and journalism a joke of ironic satire that a carrier of bull shit and mockery for Indian press. Someone end his journalism degree if he owns one.

  19. Old lady still romancing with her own fantasies. Leftists and communists seem to behave like they are the self appointed custodians of Indian history. It was working well all these times before the information age.
    The heights of their argument is when they call themselves intellectuals. Need to be wary of these idiots in pajama with Jolna bags/Cotton jhola bag. That’s the trademark of modern indian communist retards: pajama+jolna bag, also one can include white hair and big not to be missed red bindis if the retard happens to be a woman .
    Enjoy your mental diarrhea old lady before you leave to your communist abode

  20. Can you please explain the generalisation that has been force fed to all young Indian students that Mughals were great rulers that respected all religions.
    Yet destroyed old systems as well as ancient knowledge of Non-Muslim cultures and boosting conversions amongst the weak while plundering our riches through barbaric violence.

  21. The driving forces behind every Islamic invasion were greed, lust, hatred and a morbid love of violence. All these instincts were directed against kafir everywhere. From Arabia to Iran, the barbarians destroyed civilisations after civilisations. They drove the indigenous people faithful to their own values, out of their own land. Thus fire worshipping persees fled to India and found new home among hindus. They force-converted Jews in their homeland and muslim cruelty was such that Jews had to leave their place. And now as they reclaimed their homeland, the entire moslim ummah rose up in arms against Israel, albeit only to bite the dust. But hindus always were kind to this unfortunate tribe and sheltered them for over thousand of years. Islam erased last traces of Christianity in its place of origin. Islam is still committing such tyrannies – Boko Haram targeting Christian girls, barbarians posing as asylum seekers slaying teachers in France, Sultan Erdoğan arrogantly converting Hagia Sophia museum which was originally a church into mosque, people mouthing Kashmiriyat driving indigenous Kashmiri hindus and sikhs from valley, neighbours in India’s Muslim majority localities slowly forcing the hindu inhabitants to shift out and sell their properties at throwaway price to their tormentors- not to mention various jehadi outfits infesting Pakistan and Bangladesh daily making the lives of kafirs miserable. It is a fact that Islam cannot be friend of anybody, nor can it tolerate others’ existence. But historians like Thapar are blind to such facts. Or else how can she paint India’s moslim rulers as generally benevolent and conveniently overlook their zealous oppression of hindus? The simple fact that entire North India, barring parts of Rajputana or forest covered places like Khajuraho, has no ancient hindu structure left speaks volumes of moslim tyranny. The eastward march of Islam finally halted in India was due to intrinsic spiritual and cultural strength of Hinduism which Islam couldn’t vanquish. The conversation that they succeeded to enforce was mainly due to sword. Hindus were numerous and they loathed the ways of the invaders. The Muslims, despite great efforts by villains like Aurangzeb, couldn’t manage to convert such great disdainful majority. Besides, zeziya was very dear to those despots. After all, it was their holy Islamic greed. So, to rehash the rubbish again and again that the tyrants were actually nice to hindus, will only lower the already questionable credential of historians like Romila Thapar.

  22. We are more in past syndrome than present issues, cultural syndrome than economic empowerment. Professionalism is fast growing which disown both pastence & culture hagemony. In fact, Romila like historians imposed their personal understanding over the lay people instead of educating them of practicable future. Now we are facing the consequences. Any how professionalism will thrive and dominate the past past and cultural hagemony as as has been happening in a dialectical way.

  23. Hinduism, Islam or Christianity have long roots . Most are saying about peaceful living. Present world needs mutual respect, not hatered . Let people stay where they are in their Dharma , follow good of it and forget bad.
    Similarly all Religions also must do the same thing.

  24. It is really pity that being an historian romila thappar doesn’t know ( or being a north indian doesn’t like to accept the truth ) about a culture living in southern india which is as old as any other civilization in the world…. and again and again emphasising the Aryans as indigenous to this land….. Note mrs. Thappar the pictorial symbols found in harrappan archeological sites are found identical to the tamizhi scripts found in adhichanallur and recent site at keezhadi which dates back to 3000BC….

    Please read about southern india also.. because there also people live really wise people…

  25. Clearly a useless article written just to twist the facts. The fact is as below…
    I visited Kutubminar some time back for the very first time. After marvelling at the structure, I wandered around the ground and was shocked to see that there were lying some remains of pillars, columns etc and on it, were carved some statues, sculptures. Upon neat observation, it was clear that it belonged to Jain religion. The guide with me was little bit bit uncomfortable but informed that Kutubminar was built after destroying the beautiful Jain Temple!
    I think there r hundreds of facts lying in whole India just to prove how the above article is useless.

  26. I can laugh on people who try to hit Ms. Thaper as neither they are anywhere nearby Ms. Thaper so for as her knowledge is concerned nor they know anything about history except which was fed by bjp. Temples were also broken by hindu rulers, hindu rulers were also equally cruel lekin ye schools ke nalayak bachhe jinse inka school me history ka syllabus pooch lo to dum daba ke bhag len, janta ko fake nationalizm sikha rahe hen.

    • hahahaha, explaining of anything, not only history, to suit a particular ideology is not knowledge at all, that is termed as propaganda.

  27. U historians have damaged Mother India more than 1000 plus invaders, British brutality , also u historians still defend and want repeat of martyrdom of Sikh Gurus to happen now to all Hindus

  28. Bharat Varsh. term is unknown to these leftist historians. For them cast , language differences are the diet to feed on. Inspite of these differences Indians stood firm against the atrocities committed by invading Muslim barbarian s. The Great Persian empire fell flat against invading Muslim and abandoned Zoroastrian religion. Whereas Indians stood firm and now are growing cultural ly politically, economically. Romila Thapar is sad because the project started by her in JNU is on the path of failure. She is giving undue importance to foreign sources and ignoring latest findings at Rakhi Garhi etc.

  29. I wonder how much proof Romila Thapar provided for her historical fact presentations. How much field investigations she & her alike done to reveal true history in comparison to her western great counterparts ? She & most of her friend historians are basically “desktop historians”. This carries no authenticity. History is equivalent to science & not something abstract & without hard proof nothing carries any value.

  30. Bharat Varsh. term is unknown to these leftist historians. For them cast , language differences are the diet to feed on. Inspite of these differences Indians stood firm against the atrocities committed by invading Muslim barbarian s. The Great Persian empire fell flat against invading Muslim and abandoned Zoroastrian religion. Whereas Indians stood firm and now are growing cultural ly politically, economically. Romila Thapar is sad because the project started by her in JNU is on the path of failure. She is giving undue importance to foreign sources and ignoring latest findings at Rakhi Garhi etc.

  31. It is seen that The wok of Romila Thapar is being read with personal perception . It is research work.After reading with references , opnion to be formed. It is not to be accompanied with personal feelings.otherwise researchers will be discouraged.
    Suresh Dhole Advocate

  32. Respected Madam, please open your eyes and mind how these people manipulate things against Hindus not only in India and outside our country. I am a victim and lost my job. Please come out of nut shell and let us together build better India mobile

  33. Romila thapar stop being a pseudo hindu even in your name. What kind of rubbish u r (although u r aged but u don’t deserve respect as a academic) I’ve read in your book Ancient India. For u every problem lies in Sanatan Dharma and the evils like Islam and Christianity are pure. That tell us about ur rotten communist mindset, don’t know Paid by china or isi but sure u r an academic bait to insult ur country’s glorious Vedic and hindu past. Islam and Christianity are the biggest stains on our country, culture and religion

  34. I fail to understand why the historians opine. I as a reader should interpret history based on facts. Using words like eminent etc is like idolising them. This phenomenon worked till a mahatma or a pandit was used as a title to brain wash the public. Present generation is either not interested or are generally too ignorant of such phenomenon. Now logic – the need to bell the thought (cat) if to be given credence is to make believe india is inherently secular and we all together (hindu, muslim and Christians) have together created it. But the fact. Muslims suffering anywhere in the world mobilises Muslims to the extent of making other religion followers suffer. There is no nation first notion there. It is a universal religion which has political ramifications ingrained in its philosophy. They believe in a theocratic nation Muslims should be preferred as they are a majority and in a democracy minority should get preference. Where is the evolution of society. And what to say of conversions by church. We are all part of history in making. Leave the past, a sense of nationalism irrespective of religion is mandatory for every country, so should be for ours.

  35. Kavita Krishnan, Romila Thapar, Kanhaiya Kumar, Mahua Maitra all are puppets of congress and anti national propaganda machines, though Indian know them very well.
    If anybody search about the relation among the family of Thapar, Congress, anti Indian secularists and literates of pakistani origin.
    The vicious pack of wolves always try to present their narratives in different formats, and by these they always try to use divide and rule policy between Hindu, Muslims and others
    Presently they have started their campaign heavily through digital media like NDTV, Wire etc.
    Beaware my brothers and sisters of India from these colour changing people and unity of India.

  36. How to become famous? Today it is quite easy and it is just my blaming Hindus! (Sick people…)
    If you talk against Hindus then you’re secular…talk supporting Hindus then you’re communal…
    The author doesn’t have guts to talk about the Muslim rulers like Mughals, Khilji, Bahamani dynasties etc and the atrocities done during their rule…

  37. Whatever may be the atrocities of the Invaders, it must be conceded that the caste system in itself , legitimizes or at least perpetuates slavery.

    • If this slavery then it’s the most be
      nign form of slavery unlike the one practised by Christians in annihilating and stealing the lands of the entire North American Indian Nations, the South American Indians and the Australian and New Zealand aborigines and Maori.

    • That is why none of the blacks have become Pope.Racism exist in Christianity as well.So much so till recently none from other continents was allowed to become Pope.
      White supremacy continues to be the hallmark of Christianity.

  38. She is not fit to write this when she ignores Dravidian culture and history when discuss about India. She should know that Tamil predates all the languages almost. She should check the facts before committing.

  39. Leftists are the new Jaychands of India. And pseudo-historian leftists like Roimil Thapa are the lowliest creatures amongst then.

  40. JNU has lost its credibility and one of the main reasons is all the communist bent historians do not hesitate to twist history to support their ideology. I know that just for opposing their view they will tag me as some BJP IT cell guy but i am just an IT guy..

  41. Lady please manage and focus your psychosomatic health, its not a good time for you to do research and conclude, end of days is near be calm and composed for absolute salvation.

  42. Ms. Thapar has ignited a vital dialogue. Congratulation to her kin. We want more such historians that encourage healthy dialogue. We Indians are so engrossed in just family expansion, be it Hindu, Muslim, Christian or the rest remaining religion that thrives happily even today. Genocides took place on this sacred soil of India/Bharat, yet that part of history should not be repeated. The last one happened in 1947 followed by 1971. (The latter one due to political benefits). Let’s not forget we are Indians, originated from the prehistoric Aryans or the Indus Valley Aryans. In the past at gun or sword point we were converted to Christianity or Muslim. Let’s full stop that. Let’s be united and be lion-hearted to welcome the Tibetans (since they feel safer in India), let us learn to feel safe in our own India and be proud to be Indians. We had a rich culture in the past so be it at present and inspire rest of the world into spiritual ways rather than be barbaric in nature. The barrier between rich and poor is too great in India. Why? TRUE EDUCATION can cure this and not his-tory.

  43. में इनसे यह जानना चाहता हूं कि १००० वर्ष तक क्या वर्तमान स्तिथि में पाकिस्तान और बांग्लादेश में क्या हो रहा है? क्या वहां हिंदुओं पर शोषण नहीं हो रहा है? १९९० में कश्मीरी पंडितो के साथ क्या हुआ था? क्या वह हिन्दुओं पर शोषण नहीं है? क्या पाकिस्तान और बांग्लादेश अखंड भारत का हिस्सा नहीं था? अभी भी भारत में ही विभिन्न हो रहा है।

  44. What else you can expect from this lady and Pysudo secularists and more than that The Print is there to publish all their vomiting. Congress has not only spoiled this country and envoursged people who have vacant space in their head.

  45. I don’t know if this is true but I have learned to not trust news companies how try to sway historical arguments one way or the other any print somehow with different people comes out publishing similar articles very few who say something different I guess it’s magic like other news agencies who say that Hindus were enslaved and don’t discuss other views so please don’t say you’re different you guys are more of the same bullshit in the name of shaping public opinion.

  46. I don’t know if this is true but I have learned to not trust news companies how try to sway historical arguments one way or the other any print somehow with different people comes out publishing similar articles very few who say something different I guess it’s magic like other news agencies who say that Hindus were enslaved and don’t discuss other views so please don’t say you’re different you guys are more of the same bullshit in the name of shaping public opinion.

  47. I don’t know who made this buffoon a historian, from denying the rampant destruction of our heritage and most of our culture by Islamic invaders to the eventual slave trading of Hindus everything has been denied. She missed out one key aspect about India not having a unified identity prior to the British colonization, she misses one of the key references used in all vedic mantras even to this day “bharatvarsham”. A bare glance at her article, gives the impression that it is bald, generalistic and devoid of any facts and figures, but infact it is a manifestation of her day dreams. Ms Romila Thapar and Ms Swara Bhaskar are requested to stop being such ignorant goonks, we’re are aware that you all take money from the muslim lobbies to keep your kitchen fire burning, so might as well put it up on the front page of your article. I must admit I’m aghast by the pitiful standards of such a “prominent” historian, no wonders why our history chronicling is so poor. Ms Thapar even a 5 year old can do a better job.

  48. Nothing better is expected from Romila. She first needs to accept the fact that Muslims indeed carried out atrocities on Hindus. Aurangzeb, Tipu etc leadtvno stone unturned to convert people to Islam and in doing this carried out a lot of inhuman torture on the Hindus.
    Romila’s leftist bent of mind is well known and she has been given undue inportance by the congress during their rule and it is here from where she derives her strength and because influencer more than an historian. It’s time that she devotes herself truly to her subject of history rather than being a Yes woman.

  49. Very strange. Thapar goes through complete gambit of history and then suddenly ends with ‘unacceptable’ sans reason. Probably, she can’t find a reason to justify her thinking. That she has a certain committed mindset is well known but she should back up her statements with justifiable argument. Why is she stressing on Aryans and ignoring Dravidians for whom Sanskrit words are even now amongst their daily spoken language. Why is she being ignorant of the historical location till down South of massive ancient temples. She should understand that she is talking of civilization and culture, not history. Just by undermining it by being critical to catch limelight which she has over period of time is not going to change facts and history.

  50. Muslims enslaved kafirs and not hindhu as such
    Accordingly millions of hindhu s have been reduced to the status of slaves
    Muslims did in india what they did Arabia
    Islam accepted and encouraged slavery
    It allows Muslims to sexually enslave kafir women.
    According Islam even in heaven there are slaves to be owned by muslims
    There is another group of kafirs called dhimmis protected kafirs who can continue ther religion by paying jiziya and accepting the hegemony of Islam
    The communist historians are using the case of these dhimmis to show the better treatment of kafirs by muslims.
    Most of the times the service and skill of these kafirs were indispensable too.

    • Kafir are non-belivers of Islam and in Allah. So Hindu, Sikhs, Christian & all are kafirs. It’s all the more dangerous. They believe in forceful conversions and that is totally wrong and against humanity.

  51. Attacking, destroying and converting other person, community and tribe is not justified and wrongful action it lead to hatred, but in circumstances it is necessary to protect, conserve and flourish our identity..

    Atmaraksha must be our primary responsibility.

  52. It seems Romila’s love for so called Minorities has made her blind to even see basic facts related to atrocities done by Islamic Leaders . From Demolishing Sacred Hindu temples to burning of Nalanda University , Romila’s ignorant nature to these facts has cleary proved her to be a psedu Historian .

  53. On the name of higher education and hype of pseudo-intellectuallism… These kind of people always claim themselves as the repository of all truths. They always try to molest the modesity of Hinduism philosophy..

  54. For Romila , modern Afghanistan and Pakistan were not India , for Muslim started their raids and conquest in 8th century. 21st century minus 8th century= 1300 ,pure mathematics shows Romila was a poor teacher

  55. Narrow minded darbari historian. She should correct herself wherever she is wrong. Any ways she can say anything she wants to say as she is also having freedom of speach and expression. God Bless Her.

  56. All I see with such issues on the national front and making it headlines it makes our enemies like China and Pakistan to find more ways to find scapegoats in India to succeed over their mission in fighting against our country.

    If that happens we are responsible for whatever happens and we can’t blame. They wanted to divide us but we are already divided. No one has seen the dangers and outcome of any war.

    I would suggest people need to let go something that should not be a concern today. Because of our inhuman actions today we may have to suffer next 1000 yrs. Think over it.

    • But who says that those who do not believe in Veda is not Hindu. Budhist are also hindu. Aan Indian who don’t believes veda, monothiest or polytheistic or atheistic can also be a hindu if he follow certain ancient Indian cultural norms. So why she is emphasizing so much on vedic Aryans. We all believe i certain Indian cultural norms which differ from abrahamic religion and culture theifore we are hindu. She is emphasizing so much on aryans or veda to disunite hindus and meanwhile encourage muslim umma concept. Those whom claim aryan do not disclaim Indian culture but muslims of India not only discarding Indian culture but they want to become more Arabic or Islamic. Romila did not discuss this attitude of Muslims. Atleast Romila Thapar should say to muslims that they should use hindu names rather than Arabic names, wear Hindu sari than Arabic Burqua. Will she dare as so called aryan have hindu names

  57. Only one Question to Romila Thapar,

    When Lord Jagannath temple was surrounded by Mughal army and was threatened to destroy the temple if the King did not accept the offer and the offer was to hand over King’s 16 year old minor daughter to the Mughal army general. To protect the temple, to protect the idols and culture and Dharma , the then King offered His 16 year old daughter to that Mughal general
    Pl describe it , what was the episode, slavery or what, pl reply.
    It was a custom for Hindus or Sanatanis to keep Sikha or some long hair uncut above the head, Mughal king imposed tax on keeping Sikha, what was that, slavery or good governance ????
    The entire city including the temple at Srirangam was destroyed, many hundred killed, what was it ????
    Truth is not one sided. Never. And Truth hunts, devours everything including false narrative too.
    Is it history or one sided biased piece of report only ???

  58. We were not alive to see what happened 1000 yrs ago. All I see with such issues on the national front and making it headlines it makes our enemies like China and Pakistan to find more ways to find scapegoats in India to succeed over their mission in fighting against our country. If that happens we are responsible for whatever happens and we can’t blame. They wanted to divide us but we are already divided. No one has seen the dangers and outcome of any war. I would suggest people need to let go something that should not be a concern today. Because of our inhuman actions today we may have to suffer next 1000 yrs. Think over it.

  59. Romilla Thaper’s argument is somewhat logical. But again, she is also equally rigid in her views (what else to expect from 88year old “historian”) like her opponents! That ails Indian intellectuals, not ready for healthy arguments..
    Why the book Inquilab has forward by Swara Bhaskar? It’s not only intriguing but idiotic! Lutyens’ media created “Bollywood celebrity” endorsement will sell the Book? Have our publishing industry reached such a low level?

  60. She should learn science how magnetic poles are shifting from time to time. She is confused and forget the discovery of Dwarka and rise of sea level during last ice age 14000 years ago. She does not know anything other than her day dreaming imagination.

  61. The problem with india is that such senior age people are still alive and also taken care….their only aim is to consume the food and resources which should otherwise be used for younger new generation who have to become the future and can do value add.. we are wasting resources on these spent old burdens…I sincerely pray for her speedy death so resources wasted here can be put out to better use….🙏🏻

  62. Why are we chasing the phantoms of the past and not gearing up for life on earth after 2050 2060 2070.
    Don’t we want our grandchildren to also enjoy the bliss of grandparenthood ??
    This is of course not to deny that all was hunky dory in the past —-

  63. Romila Thapar has written the account of the Indian society right from sensitive period .Majority of one faith followers always created adversities for minorities. Intra faith conflict created five effects i.e.
    1. Majority constantly created feelings that their customs and way of life are the best, undrmining cutoms of minorities.It resulted in hatetrade amongst each others.
    2 Similar feelings were created in inter faiths followers.The feelings of insecurity of minorities were encashed by leaders paving way for two nations theory.
    3.Intrafaiths inequalities introduced by wise people to secure their services like slaves and put them out in sharing social status costed the generations to convert in other religions. The Oppressed asked for their deprived rights. It disturbed social integrity & strength.
    4 The wise people who created hate for rulers sought confidence of power owners that they could handle the dissatisfieds double benefits.
    5.The wise people all the time set forth various imaginary theories making to believe common man.These theories were only to create instability and restlessness in Indian society with motive to get socio-political powers .
    In short, wise people did whatever was benifical to them but a common man suffered continuously. What Romila Thapar has written, has intrinsic value .lt is to be read impartially.

  64. Why don’t you say that, from later vedic age period higher caste people suppressing the lower caste people.. that is more harsher than what muslims did….
    And this continue to till date.. what higher caste people did, those things followed by muslims…
    Truth should be said to the society in all matters.. not just in one perspective.

    • Well then we should say to please read the unbiased literature. I really hoped many of the so called lower caste sympathizers will not read the vedic literature and without knowing the ‘V’ of vedas start to criticize our religion. Go on read the literature and then come to debate

  65. Why don’t you say that, from later vedic age period higher caste people suppressing the lower caste people.. that is more harsher than what muslims did….
    And this continue to till date.. what higher caste people did, those things followed by muslims…
    Truth should be said to the society in all matters.. not just in one perspective.

  66. Why don’t you say that, from later vedic age period higher caste people suppressing the lower caste people.. that is more harsher than what muslims did….
    And this continue to till date.. what higher caste people did, those things followed by muslims…
    Truth should be said to the society in all matters.. not just in one perspective.

  67. Please do forgive me for such long answer but I can’t present it in a more short form. Also, I do not mean to offend anyone and I’m presenting my opinions and facts from various sources. Feel free to correct me I’m mistaken anywhere. Additions and omissions are welcome.

    Although I don’t support your statement but I totally respect your opinion.
    I am a resident of mewad, rajputana and as everyone knows we were always at war with mughals but as a matter of fact mewad never surrendered and you can take a word that you won’t hear any false or morphed statements from folks and literature of mewad. And Also it is necessary to know that everything we have learned from history books is just a cheap, disgusting and manupulative version of reality. It was done by britishers and mughal kings for their own sake.

    Allow me to describe his character first.

    Akbar was not at all a liberal king.

    Even assuming that he fancied nobility, it is amazing that Akbar let his comtemporaries and Generals, like Peer Mohammad, loot and rape the helpless citizenry that he was ruling! It would however be interesting to observe the incidents in Akbar’s reign and evaluate his character.

    Akbar’s ancestors were barbarous and vicious, and so were his descendants like Aurangzeb so its obvious that Akbar was born and brought up in a illiterate and foul atmosphere characterized by excessive drinking, womanizing and drug addiction. Babur was a chronic drinker … Humayun made himself stupid with opium … Akbar permitted himself the practices of both vices .. Akbar’s two sons died in early manhood from chronic alcoholism, and their elder brother was saved from the same fate by a strong constitution, and not by virtue.

    Describing the demoniac pleasure which Babur used to derive by raising towers of heads of people he used to slaughter, Col. Tod wrote that after “Rana Sanga” was poisoned, pyriamids were raised of the heads of the slain, and on a hillock which overlooked the field of the battle, a tower of skulls was erected and the conquerer Babur assumed the title of Ghazi. Akbar seems to have preserved this “great” legacy of erecting minarets as is obvious from the accounts of battles he fought. Humayun, the son of Babar, was even more degenerate and cruel than his father. After repeated battles, Humayum captured his elder brother Kamran and subjected the latter to brutal torture. A detailed account is left by Humayun’s servant who quoted thatHumayun had little concerns for his brother’s sufferings .. One of the men was sitting on Kamran’s knees. He was pulled out of the tent and a lancet was thrust into his eyes .. Some lemon juice and salt was put into his eyes .. After sometime he was put on horseback. You can imagine the cruelty and torture that Humayun was capable of inflicting on others when he subjected to his own brother to such atrocities. Humayun was also a slave to opium habit and a lecherous degenarate when it came to women. He is also known to have married a 14 year old Hamida Begum by force. The cruelties perpetrated by of Akbar’s descendants (Jehangir, Shahjahan, Aurangzeb, etc.) are not entirely different from those of his ancestors.

    Akbar possessed a inordinate lust for women, just like his ancestors and predecessors. One of Akbar’s motives during his wars of aggression against various rulers was to appropriate their women, daughters and sisters. The Rajput women of prefered “Jauhar” than to be captured and disrespectfully treated as servants and prostitutes in Akbar’s harem. Also, he established a wine shop near the palace and the meena bazaar (don’t consider it a simple market as the name suggests)… The prostitues of the realm collected at the shop could scarcely be counted. This was the state of affairs during Akbar’s rule, where alcoholism, sodomy, prostitution and murderous assaults were permitted by the king himself. Akbar, throughout his life, allowed himself ample latitude in the matter of wives and mistresses ! and further Akbar had introduced a whole host of Hindu the daughters of eminent Hindu Raja’s into his harem. Whole of India (except few parts of rajputana) was reduced to a brothel during the Moghal rule and Akbar who is being glorified as one of the patrons of the vast brothel.

    By the way do you know that when Akbar visited Deosa to marry Jodha bai, whole villages in the route fled away. Why would the people flee in terror if at all Akbar was “visiting” Raja Bharmal and that the marraige was congenial and in consent with the bride’s party?

    Akbar was born a muslim, lived like a muslim and died as a muslim; that too a very fanatic one. Histories have dubbed him as a true believer who accomplished a synthesis of the best principles of all religions. The infamous Jiziya tax, which is special tax exaction from the Hindus, was never abolished by Akbar. Time and time again different people had approached seeking exemption from Jiziya.Everytime the exemption was ostensibly issued, but never was actually implemented. Throughout Akbar’s reign, temples used to razed to the ground or misappropriated as mosques and cows were slaughtered in them, as happened in the battle at Nagarkot. The Hindus were treated as thirdclass citizens in Akbar’s reign he ordered the Hindus as unbelievers to wear a patch (Tukra) near the shoulders, and thus got the nick name of Tukriya (patcher).

    The holy Hindu cities of Prayag and Banaras were plundered by Akbar because their residents were rash enough to close their gates! No wonder Prayag of today has no ancient monuments — whatever remain are a rubble! It is rather obvious that Akbar had no respect and reverance for cities considered holy by Hindus, let alone esteem for human life and property. Also, it is evident from this instance that Akbar’s subjects were horrified and scared upon the arrival of their king into their city. If at all Akbar was so magnanimous, why then did not the people come forward and greet him?

    Monserrate once said, “the religious zeal of the Musalmans has destroyed all the idol temples which used to be numerous. In place of Hindu temples, countless tombs and little shrines of wicked and worthless Musalmans have been erected in which these men are worshipped with vain superstition as though they were saints.” Not only did the muslims destroy the idols, but usurped the existing temples and converted them into tombs of insignificant people.

    Akbar has neither any love or compassion for Hindus as is apparent from the above examples. Hindus were openly despised and contemptously treated under Akbar’s fanatical rule as under any other rule. Akbar was only one of the many links of the despotic and cruel Moghal rule in India, and enforced the tradition of his forefathers with sincerity and equal ruthlessness.

    If you think he was a great administrator.

    – He considered himself to be heir of all his subjects, and ruthlessly seized the property of every deceased whose family had to make a fresh start .

    -Akbar’s lawless and rapacious rule also led to horrible famines. Even Gujrat, one of the richest provinces in India, suffered severly for 6 months in 1573-74. The famine was not caused by drought or the failure of seasonal rains, but was due to the destruction wrought by prolonged wars and rebellions, constant marching and counter-marching of troops, and killing men on a large scale, and the breakdown of admnistrative machinary and the economic system … The mortality rate was so high that on an average 100 cart-loads of dead bodies were taken out for burial in the city of Ahemadabad alone.

    -Parents were allowed to sell their children.

    -He was so noble in character that his generals and courtiers, even including his son Jahangir (son of Jodha bai and akbar), revolted against him.

    If you think he built great buildings and forts.

    – However, as seen earlier in mughal rule, Akbar simply renamed pre-existing townships of Hindu origin and claimed to have been built by himself.

    -One such unfortunate township is that of Fatehpur Sikri. It has a massive defensive wall around it, enclosing redstone gateways and a majestic palace complex, explicitly in the Rajput style. Acc. to Todd Rana Sangram Singh came to the Mewar throne in 1509 A.D. Eighty thousand horses, seven Rajas of the highest rank, nine Raos and 104 cheiftains, bearing the titles of Rawal and Rawut with 500 elephants follwed him into the field (against Babur). The princess of Marwar and Amber did him homage, and the Raos of Gwalior, Ajmer, “Sikri” … served him as tributaries .. The passage makes it clear that even during the reign of Akbar’s grandfather Babur, Sikri was ruled by a “Rao”, who owed allegiance to Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar.

    -The Red Fort of Agra, also originally of Rajput design and construction, was usurped by Akbar. As many books say that 1565 was the year when the original red fort was destroyed. Also, its said that in 1566 Adam khan was punished and thrown from second floor of red fort. Even the foundation might have took 3 years to be built. Then how we get a 2 floor fort (considering akbar was comfortable living in an under construction palace :D). He simply comandeered the fort from its original inhabitants, and claimed to have been built by him.

    -Similarly, the palaces and mansions in Ajmer, Allahabad, Manoharpur and other townships were simply usurped by Akbar. He never ordered engineers and architects to build to build magnificent buildings.

    What the world sees now are just The fraudulent fabricated stories written by muslim chroniclers to adying for Akbar’s favours.

    Akbar has been given unecessary credit of being tolerant, secular and an altruist king. His sycophantic courtiers, including the court chroniclers, alloted to him all the praises he desired. Upon some inspection, the nine-gem story of Akbar’s court becomes a sheer invention of court flatterers, who sought Akbar’s favour for self-aggrandizement. Akbar’s recalcitrance and callousless in the matters of caring for his subjects and domain, led to untold misery in the form of famines and pestilence. Wars, revolts and rebellions constantly erupted concluding is mass mayhem and killings. There was no tranquility nor peace in Akbar’s reign, let alone material and spiritual prosperity. That an avaricious miser Akbar was, it is rather unbelievable for him to have spent on creating expensive buildings and mansions. He was no better than other muslim monarchs, constantly on the prey to usurp power and pelf by whatever means they could. Morality and humanitarian principles took a back seat to self aggrandizement and lechery. Even after exercising numerous abductions, kidnappings, murders Akbar have been refered to as noble, compassionate and great. Even though religious fanatism never decreased in his reign, nay, was sponsored by Akbar himself, he has been termed as a secular, broadminded person. Such blunders of a serious magnitude have been committed by historians reconstructing and writing accounts on Indian history.

    It may be worthwhile to research and present the “true” story of Akbar exposing to the world the true nature of Akbar and his personality. The Moghal rule in India was indeed very ruthless and full of difficult times for the people and the country; truly a “dark” age.

    “History is something that is as delicate as a human emotion itself. One quiver in the web and whole civilization could be mislead-ed.” -Hardik Jain

    Just in case if you are not convienced by the above mentioned article. Please feel free to take a look on these sources.

    Smith, V., “Akbar, The Great Mogul,” 2nd Edition, S.Chand and Co., Delhi, 1958.

    Todd, James.,”Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan,” 2 volumes, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1957.

    Shelat J.M, “Akbar,” Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, 1964, Bombay.

    Blochmann, H., “Ain-e-Akbari,” translation of Abul Fazal’s Persian text, 2nd Edition, Bibliotheca Indica Series, published by the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

    Briggs, John, “History of Mahomedan Power in India (till the year 1612 A.D),” Vol.2, Translated from the original Persian of Mahomad bin Ferishta, S. Dey Publication, Calcutta, 1966.

    Shrivastava, A.L., “Akbar the Great,” Vol.1, Shiv Lal Agarwal and Co., Agra.

    Monserrate S.J., “The Commentary,” translated from original Latin by J.S. Hoyland, annotated by S.Banerjee, Humphrey Milford, Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1922.

    Blochmann H., “Ain-i-Akbari” edited by D.C Phillot, Calcutta, 1927.

    Elliot and Dowson,” Tuzak-i-Babari”, Vol.4.

    • I agree. History is written by people with pre conceived ideas and many a time also with hidden or apparent motives. So history is fiction. But events in history can’t be changed. History ( narration) can be changed or manipulated.

    • At last someone has posted a strong and comprehensive rebuttal to Thapar’s view point. This comment itself is an article in its own right. I think author of this comment should recompile the content of the comment and publish it at a suitable platform. I suggest editors of this portal to approach the author of this comment to allow them to officially publish the point of view opposite to Thapar’s view. That will indeed be a impartial and constructive journalism.

        • The Indian media may not consider it “progressive” to publish such writings. The cry of “freedom” is just a facade to deflect criticism so that the media can continue to be a marketplace for trading “spicy” materials to influence rather than inform. So they present dissent of dissent as strangulating!!!!! How absurd!

  68. The real battle in India is between enlightenment vs ignorance, unity vs division, equality vs discrimination, going ahead vs going back. The real enemies of people would give it whatever color or name and create bogey villains and raise war cries, all in order to fool the masses, loot public resources, and take the country down in economy, education, defense, health, and law and order.

  69. Romila Thapar’s views have to be taken with a bucket of salt.And for theprint to publish this piece of nonsense is obnoxious to say it mildly.

  70. Yes , u are right I studied one of urs points that vedic era state formation was being in arrested development where the much wealth was wasted on rituals ,
    Now I have a question if exalted amount of wealth was meant to endorse rituals then who does perform these rituals both Aryans and natives or any one special among the two. ?

  71. Anti national anti hindu writer
    …print always support anti hindu ..people…so boycott this type of people…

  72. The glorious past of muslim dynasty’s for nearly 800 years will fall flat when sangi nationalist mention Gohri, Ghazni, Babar who looted wealth from temples and fled to Afghanistan which is part of Akand Bharat then. It is quite evident that certainly the muslim rulers did not convert majority Hindus to Islam. Romila is quite honest to share her knowledge of the past history.

  73. Most comments written above are created by one or two persons with multiple fake accounts. All comments say the same thing and are aimed at abusing Thapar. No alternative argument, no new or counter evidence presented by them. They are trolls masquerading as different readers. Now, no one, except a few idiots, pays attention to these trolls.

  74. Most comments written above are created by one or two persons with multiple fake accounts. All comments say the same thing and are aimed at abusing Thapar. No alternative argument, no new or counter evidence presented by them. Trolls masquerading as readers. Now no one except a few idiots pays attention to these trolls.

  75. The Print is rapidly turning into The Wire. Thankfully I haven’t wasted my hard earned money to subscribe to this hindu hating platform. By giving Romila Thapar a platform, The Print has clearly shown it’s level of credibility.

  76. This is bull shit and destroying reality……………Everyone knows who enslaved whom…….Why do you distort that

  77. What hindu were doing when muslims invading looting India. The rajput brahmins who tortured, looted raped murdeing dalits shudra. Why were so cowared the could not prevent invasision, lioting conversion of brahman, rajput and warrior caste hindus.

  78. It was a treat to read this article. We need to hear more from accomplished historians like Ms. Thapar as part of our national discourse.

    I am curious about her assertion that “There were no histories, of course, of India as a unified territory prior to colonial rule.” Did the empires of Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, the Guptas and the Mughals not bring together vast territories and diverse peoples of the Indian subcontinent? Even if they may not have encompassed all regions of India down to the very last one, they were no less in scale than the British empire in India. And did they not have a great cultural impact, and foster a sense of unity – maybe not unity with a Hindu or ‘Indian’ identity as we know it, but that of a set of peoples living under the rule of a singly mighty empire? One would like to hear her views.

  79. This historians ( or distortians?) and her accomplices are morally unacceptable to common people of India. They better categorised their books under fictions!

  80. News is that the current government is restructuring the curriculum which our kids study as of now,
    I hope they do it ASAP
    Because I don’t want Thappar to beat the dust thinking she and her ilk has monopolized Indian history textbooks,
    India wasn’t unified before Invaders …….,my foot

  81. Hogwash!

    I wonder who is changing what. I find that all religions in India practice their faith as freely as is done anywhere else in the world. Any violence is just that. Violent criminal activities. Live in the present not in the past. History is a perception. History is just another story. Historians are just story tellers with their version according to own perceptions and interpretation. Only the event is the truth. The event can’t be changed. History can be rewritten according to the perception of the teller. The truth can’t be changed.

  82. Leftists are a bunch of people who are ashamed of their culture and identity. We hindus have let this crowd define our history. Time to throw into dustin the opinion and doctored history of this anti hindu crowd.

  83. It’s a common sense to understand that no Muslim ruler came to India to spread Islam but to rule the country.. 700+ years they have ruled our country and if their intentions were to convert this country to Islamic it would have been easily done during these years. Today politicians through their fake IT cell are changing the facts and history just for political gains and fools are falling prey to them.

    • Abdul, They might have told you that they only came to rule. Not to convert kafirs into Islam. Abdul, How did you convert to Islam ??!! Go and read history books written by the invaders themselves.

    • Muslim rulers came for mainly plunder, capturing slaves and economic benefit of ruling over rich country. Spread of Islam was fringe benefit. But they did not want too many converts because that would reduce income from Jazia tax.

    • If they didn’t want to spread islam, then why did they impose jizya tax and destroy many hindu temples. They imposed islam in India, but they were unsuccessful.

    • Yeah!! History tells us wherver muslims ruler(idiots) invaded, they ve changed the cultural aspects of that land and converted the whole population into a 72 hoor ideology!!
      Dont rant your madrasachapp learnings everywhere. We know muslims rulers(idiots) could not covert hindus because of strong philospohical base of this land.
      Thousands of temples were destroyed, Nalanda university was butchered!! Your mulla historian can fool only idiots!
      The day your community will accept the historical truths, historical blunders- non muslim communities will accept you with broad hands. But you dont want that. You want abba turkey’s recognition. Not ours.
      Since i am from northeast, and living in a muslim locality,i know your community better then anyone. I know how my uncle family was threatened by only two families of peacefools and too in our land !!

    • Yeah!! History tells us wherver muslims ruler(idiots) invaded, they ve changed the cultural aspects of that land and converted the whole population into a 72 hoor ideology!!
      Dont rant your madrasachapp learnings everywhere. We know muslims rulers(idiots) could not covert hindus because of strong philospohical base of this land.
      Thousands of temples were destroyed, Nalanda university was butchered!! Your mulla historian can fool only idiots!
      The day your community will accept the historical truths, historical blunders- non muslim communities will accept you with broad hands. But you dont want that. You want abba turkey’s recognition. Not ours.
      Since i am from northeast, and living in a muslim locality,i know your community better then anyone. I know how my uncle family was threatened by only two families of peacefools and too in our land !!

    • Muslims were like critters. Locusts. They destroyed everything they had so they moved to New lands. Bloody chors. Cowards.

    • That Hinduism survived was inspite of all efforts of muslim invaders. They tried like hell but we persevered.

    • Who cares what you moo-slums could hv been done bla bla bla??? The fact is destruction of something temple to destruction of nalanda university is a fact that you people with your degraded mindset can’t tolerate other religion…It was a truth then as it is a truth now…700+ years of rule converted many as we see Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan are burning examples and the fact that islamists never able to rule the whole indian subcontinent, is another thing.
      And as of today’s political need, well it is simple…Pakistan separated on the basis of religion, so should hv india because india is hindu majority….It hv to or those who oppose us and their followers will face consequences

    • Are Terra naam Abdul hai na kitni history padhi hai tune pata chal raha hai tere illogical comment se your islamic rulers were not able to convert us not because they were secular but because they were impotent to do so shivaji maharaj ,maharana pratap,etc aur agar conversions nahi karne the to mandir kyu tode hospitals banane ke liye ?

    • So if they didn’t come to convert then why kashmiri pandits went running to guru Tegh Bahadur, and why was he be headed, please read Sikhism history…there are many instances of forced conversions….and also as per Romilas version Hindus kept muslims under siege…..

    • Ok while going through your comment I encountered a huge contradiction..i.e you said they didn’t came to spread Islam but then you said that they wanted to make it an islamic country… How can someone make a country islamic without spreading the Islam🤷🤦🤦…also you said they were not converting ..are you fckn serious first read some histoy bro … people accepted death rather than conversion in India

    • It is not correct, Muslim invaded India and during their invasion, they damaged many Hindu temples, many Muslim rulers forced Hindus to convert Islam, so Mrs Thapar ‘ s statement is not correct. She is a defective historians. She recorded her books many defective and wrong statements about India and on Hindus.

    • The Indian History Congress and it’s novelists like Thapar are soo good the can stand toe to toe with fiction playrights of any generation.

    • A muslim writing in English….?? Strange… Don’t use the language of kafirs….use your own language….allah will punish u….

    • LAL salaam🇨🇳true Muslims will try to vanish the community or culture,where they are conquering…Akbar was a secularist… thanks to flying Spaghetti monster…he wasn’t a true Muslim.

    • Just look at Pakistan and Bangladesh 73 years thence what is the % muslim ruler after muslim ruler have written namas on what they have done the acts bytodays standards are barbaric at minimal.. when the author says ‘trained eye’ she means ideological. Yet the perversion persists people who can’t show mirror to entrenched barbaric behaviour preach tolerance and peace. Guess time to bin peaceful rule treated well no violence.

    • आपके कमेंट में सबसे शानदार बात ( ruled our country ) नहीं तो ज्यादातर लोग ये समझते है वे उनके साथ बाहर से आए है

    • 😂 😂…. Yes, they did no conversions and spread peace by destroying royal heritage of this country… What you said “if they came here to convert”….. There was a constant resistance from the people. You can’t deny the facts of the history….. Don’t wander between the left and right.

    • You should also have some common sense that muslims wanted to convert us but we were strong and they still continue to spread their religion but can’t take big steps until they becomenearly40% of total population so they can’t do much now but surely will

    • They tried their level best but hindu belief system is so strong in India, the Sanathana Shema, it is not possible to uproot it by a few generations of Muslim rule & efforts to convert
      But in places like Kashmir, Kerala, Hyderabad they have gained majority status or gained sizable numbers which can not be ignored.
      Hinduism has stood test of time for centuries and against many religions like Buddism, Jainism, Sikhism etc . So what effect Muslim rulers can have !

    • she exposes her hypocrisy and duel standards .
      I think she needs to revisit Various records of mugals if she believes . Please don’t teach wrong history . You are shameless .

      I think one day she will prove that Hindus have invaded indian subcontinent 😅

      Without mentioning 7 times destruction of Somnath temple . She has fabricated that rulers used to destroy temple inorder to show their strength .

      Zajia tax

      Why there is no big temple in North India unlike what we see in South ?

      Have you see the temple of Kashi Vishwanath which is itself a prove ?

      If you think Muslims rulers were so good and peaceful as they self proclaimed ? Then why zorestrian had to flew to India ?

      Why Islam does not accept other religion as equal so as early Christianity under the chruch rule ?

      Sri ram temple and Krishna Janam Bhumi , I think you have not seen yet ?

      When Muslims accept and feel proud on invasion on Jerusalem and they modified synagogue into mosque ? Then you fear to accept when their own historians accept ?

      Why don’t we study our own Heroes who sacrificed their life for us like Raja Dahir Sen and so many others ?
      Do they not deserve it to be the part of NCERT textbook ?

      Most of times you don’t make sense with your own history
      I have alot to say but my English is little weak and I am commerce students ….

  84. Somnath temple was sacked 7 times, Nalanda University was set ablaze and burnt to ashes in 3 days, Kashi Vishwanath temple was demolished and the sacred linga was placed at the top of Gyan Vapi mosque, vridhavan was desecrated, Madurai Meenakshi temple was sacked… All by the invading marauders whose sole aim was to subjugate the local Hindus and impose their theocratic ideas. They were also rewarded by the then caliphs for the merciless conversion and slaughter of the indigenous population.. So, by what name does these so called Historians wish to call such events ? Its a pathetic ostrich mentality that has severely eroded our national pride and self respect.

    • Pseudo secular historians have distorted our history. No actions were left unresorted to convert and subjugate Hindus. These cruel invaders and their faith succeeded in other countries but failed to convert india completely because of d inherent resilience of Hindus . Yet considerable damage was done . Historians created promoted and prompted by Congress and our early education ministers have presented a false narrative of muslim rule of 700 years . Yes they destroyed our culture and desicrated our symbols. Your comments are factually correct.

    • Well different kings have invaded other kings. For example Shangais Khan of Mongolia invaded Europe and Asia which covers a large number of Islamic countries. But he was not a Muslim.
      Most of southeast Asia was pagan in religion and not Hindus in ancient times. Then a man from Bihar – Buddha spread his religion to most of Asia.
      Well most people in China have no religion. Most people in Europe have no religion.
      Most interestingly Islam has caused most harm in their own countries.
      The Gita itself preaches against rituals. But guides towards duties called Karma.
      Indian love their festivels but would like to stay away from division and politics because it in not economically beneficial.

  85. Romila Thapar is a fake pseudo historian who created a false history of India for the Congress and was rewarded with Padma awards and suitable housing by the Congress. I am so glad that Romila has obviously lost her marbles and made this false and untrue statement that “Muslims enslaved Hindus for last 1000 yrs is historically unacceptable” shows that she believes Muhammed Ghori, Muhammed bin Tughlaq and Babar were Hindus!!!

    Romila is so much in love with Muslims that she does not want them to be the “bad guys” and so she is willing to lie convincingly, proving she is an opportunistic and biased historian. Romila has been so used to creating Jihadist history for the Gandhis that she now makes this ridiculous claim that Hindus enslaved Hindus!!! And I should know as I am an alumnus of JNU and I attended her monotonous and boring lectures in JNU. She is neither a good teacher nor a truthful historian. Thanks.

  86. Was romila thapar denying enslavment of hindus by muslim inavders and rulers in india when they imposed jizya tax (imposed on non believers) and temples were destoyed at will like kashi vishwanath was destroyed by aurangzeb.

  87. I’m happy to read the heading of the book. The slogan which is synonymous with the Left. The heading makes it very obvious as what the contents in the book could be. Hope it sells

  88. Romila is the biggest curse for the suffered Hindu society it is even more worse than jallianwalabag holocaust to rewrite the history i think historian duty is to record and write the past but she always writes only her assumptions and anti Hindu claims these people are thousands of times dangerous than Corona

  89. The issue of communal rivalry is prime matter here in India at present. We are not indigenous but heterogeneous… The fact that every Indian needs to understand. We believe in unity in diversity. Why should we search for who is original natives.. After all no one… the history is proving that no one single group of people is so called natives…
    Kindly look at our differences and try to be united as nation to go forward , not to go back , searching which can devide us into pieces … And finally destroy everyone of us.

  90. राष्ट्रवादियों का सामना किसी कांग्रेस, सपा, बसपा, धर्मनिरपेक्ष पार्टियों और उनके समर्थकों या अल्पसंख्यकों से नहीं बल्कि एक ऐसी धूर्त विदेशी विचारधारा से है जो धन बल,निशाचर माया, कुतर्क आदि से सुसज्जित होकर विभिन्न तथाकथित सेक्युलर नेताओं, तथाकथित गरीब रक्षकों,नास्तिकों, फ़िल्मों, नाटकों, वेब सीरीज,संचार माध्यमों, सेलिब्रिटी लोगों,आधुनिक तकनीकों,शैक्षिक संस्थाओं, तथाकथित विद्वानों,विदेशियों,आतंकवादियों,विदेशी खुफिया एजेंसियों,जातिगत मतभेदों को अपना हथियार बना कर भारतीय संस्कृति, सभ्यता,एकता, अखंडता,राष्ट्रीयता को निरंतर निशाना बनाकर उस पर चोट पर चोट करती रहती है।

  91. Her line of argument doesn’t lead to the conclusion and the headline. It seems enforced. The history of Islamic rule is fraught with the incidents of mass oppression of Hindus. From Punjab to Karnataka, there are live examples that can be seen till today. She is an erudite professor but has an agenda of rubbishing Islamic aggression on the Hindus. Unfortunate!

  92. A group of morons come together to generate a consensus. The outcome will obviously be garbage!

    Ignore this jokebook and move on.

  93. The title is sufficient you need not read the article.
    Muslims came to Bharat with sword in one hand and Koran in another; take this or this they said. How they manged to establish their rule in Bhaarat by trickery and cheating is known.
    How many temples they looted and destroyed, how many temples they converted into Mosques we all know.
    Will Durrant writes in his “History of civilisation,” Islamic savagery in India is the bloodiest in human history.
    This woman fake historian tries justify Islamic brutality. If India lost war with Ghajanavi is it not due to such traitors?

    • I do accept that yes Muslims did commit atrocities when they waged wars, destroyed temples as is the norm of war those days, some of their rulers did impose jaziya , but to say that they systematically persecuted Hindus with religious sword and forced conversion, it’s unacceptable as their rule is driven more by political gains than religious. For about 700 years they ruled and still they are a small minority group its unthinkable , had they ruthlessly waged religious wars , half if not more of the Indian population today would be Muslims

    • Yes that is Kashmir Pandit “TRUTH’. it is like nonsense of Kashmiriyat. You guys for your own self interest did not allow Kashmiri Muslims to reconvert back to Hinduism in Gulab Singh’s time. So Muslims paid you guys back by kicking you out.

  94. It’s true, few Muslim emperors were good like Akbar but others were cruel, killed thousands Hindus & destroyed lots of Hindu Temples which is historically proved.

  95. I think these nuts are cowards of highest kind,they don’t have guts enough to talk about Islamic version of laws & oppressive culture of men on women.
    And print wasting time focussing on unnecessary person who only knows how to create alienation.
    If they really want to established healthy society than talk sense.
    Talk about what is in quaran

  96. Leftist का इतिहास रहा है जिस देश का खाते है उसी देश को बर्बाद करते है घटिया मानसिकता रही है इनकी अगर अच्छी होती तो सम्स्त भारत में जिनका वर्चस्व होता

  97. Artefacts of Indus valley period 7509 BC were reported in Haryana & findings appeared in most reputed scientific journal of world, Nature. But author describe it a s newspaper report. Further date was assigned by using carbon dating at IIT Khadagpur. Hence India valley civilization is oldest. Further historian failed miserably to explain the advantage of vedic literature of 5000 BC & earlier which explains objective if human life, salvation, Moksh. Only well developed society ascribes such view.

  98. The extent of Romila thapar’s liberal view is focussed upon JNU… Pakistan …Muslim…. Jinnah… Jawaharlal Nehru etc….

    What Romila said was true as everything starts with an ideology….. Where Freedom was an idea and that became true in 1947…. Just like Romila Thapars Dad chose to engage in sex with her mother without a condom and Romila was born and is trying byo fuck the nation with her imaginary lame dick…

    It’s only a matter of time until JNU falls in place and stop shitting around or be closed….

  99. I wish Romulus Thapar would keep quiet. She is senile. Our history has been tampered by the British so much that what we read is concocted by the British. So it will be better for Madam Thapar to keep her opinions to hetself

  100. The fact that there is no comment here is itself a resounding comment, on of the complete rejection of Smt Romilla Thapar and her version of history. No comment means she is irrelevant. Even someone like Shivam Vij or Zainab Sikandar gets some response. It is her Karma that she saw all her brainwashing efforts come to naught in her own lifetime.

  101. History is being rewritten now. Apparently and unfortunately it is the government’s perogative. Which it shouldn’t be. So who is to judge what was or is our history? Now we have a Nehruvian historical viewpoint and one which is being rewritten now. Romila Thapar was one of the those appointees who fashioned nehruvian history for generations along with the likes of Maulana Azad,Humayun Kabir and fakhruddin Ahmed. What then can you expect from a bunch of leftists an communists? And we have a book reiterating that viewpoint with a foreword by Swara bhaskar !!!? Thanks but no thanks . Enough is enough.

  102. nobody is saying muslims enslaved hindus for last 1000 yrs… its this conscious and deliberate attempt to put up a false argument ( a strawman argument) in order to bury the hindu iconoclasm by muslim rulers makes thapar irrelevant or “dinosaur”. so why didn’t ram guha join u to write history books ?

  103. You are not a historian Madam. You are a politician of doubtful intellectual integrity. Please do not propagate falsehood. Posterity will judge you otherwise. You will not be taken seriously.

  104. India is a vast country. To base Indian civilizational origins to discoveries in the NORTH is a bit stupid and idiotic. If there has been civilizational continuity where people have lived continuously there will be nothing to find. These theories are just that. There is nothing concrete to prove. This is not exact science where one can provide unquestionable evidence and proof to back the theory.

    Muslims and Christians are not foreigners because we say so. They claim to be so. This is not a question for Hindu’s to answer. This is a question for the Muslims and Christians to answer. Do they see themselves as Indian converts or do they see themselves as Arabs and Europeans in India. Essentially Hyphenated Identity. This Hyphenated Identity works in the US as there are no natives. It may not in India. It does not work in France as we recently learnt.

    Let us look at the word Hindu… It is not found in any of our own description of who we are… So for Romila and the rest of us to contiue using the term to describe ourselves is a bit out dated. We need a different narrative and description based on our Civilizational history. This does not start as Romila has maintained with the Mughals.

  105. This will cause all the Hindutva freaks to freak out !

    The Hindutva leader Savarkar invented the Two Nation Theory, and they followed the racialist supremacist ideas of the Nazis – and they feel that is Indian !

    • The fact is Syed Ahmed first proposed the 2 nation theory in late 19th century even before Veer sawarkar was born.

      This statement is an example of flawed historical learning as advanced by romilla and her ilk.

    • An example of flawed history.First learn the difference between nation and state,then read what Savarkar said.Jinnah was the first to propose a separate state.If you are talking about nation then it was first propsed by medival rulers and in modern times by founder of AMU Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

    • Rasgolla Ji, have you h ard of th Ali Brothers. Do a googl search at least, that was th idiot who first propounded the Theory in Lahore almost 2 decades before Savarkar opined his theory that Muslims will never as a mass want to be part of any nation . They will always uphold their adherence to that medival looter Mohammed.

  106. Various theories were put about on the origins of the Aryans.

    What is the need. The fact is Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, assorted tribal faith classified as Heathen, Pagan or Kafir faiths were in India thousand years, if not more, before Muslims came.

    The attempt by assorted secularists to argue that Aryans came from outside India is akin to many white supremacists in North America trying to claim Caucasoid people were in North America earlier based on few Caucasoid skeletons found and common view that North American Indians came from Asia. The whole attempt is to delegitimize North American Indians as first people in North America. Secularists in India are trying the same trick to delegitimize Hindus as first people and put them in same category as Muslims. it is like n infiltrator or squatter has same right to title of land as owner of the land.

    Of course humanity came long after world was created. So the people who came earlier and has record of their possession, when Johnny-come-lately, are indigenous. Latecomers who assimilated are also accepted as indigenous as there is no visible sign foreignness except by racists.

    Hindus include Arya, Australoid, Greek, Scythians, Huns etc. people.

  107. There were no histories, of course, of India as a unified territory prior to colonial rule.

    Is Romila Thapar a historian? Looks like there is lot to be desired in her knowledge of History.

    I wonder whether she heard the name Chandragupta { Sandrocotus to Greeks], Ashoka of Maurya dynasty and what areas were part of their empire? Did she hear name Gupta dynasty and Samudra Gupta?

    May be she should go back to college to relearn the history. May be this ghastly woman is suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease or mental dementia.

  108. This is a silly point that Ms. Thapar makes. Hindus were enslaved by the Muslims about this there is absolutely no doubt. Hindus had no citizenship rights. They had to pay taxes for being Hindus. They did not have the freedom to practise their religion in public. It was Tilak maharaj who urged Hindus to come out of their shell and practise religion in public in the 1890s. The fear that Hindus had is responsible for us not seeing a single Hindu haveli, bungalow, house of a grand scale from Mughal or Sultanate times. All such grand houses are of Muslims. Or in the Rajputana where Hindus ruled. Even though Hindus were the richer community in India. Muslims discriminated against Hindus in the same manner as the Europeans discriminated against Jews. Hindu places of worship were routinely destroyed by Muslims. Enslavement of the Hindus is this that Hindu women had to take on the purdah once Muslims began to rule north India. These are simple unvarnished facts of history which Ms. Thapar has been trying to hide for the past six decades. Fortunately for us today we can read about all this through primary documents which are available on and the National Digital Library of India. Ever since these resources became available we do not need Romila Thapar to tell us about our history. Lal Salaam to the internet.

  109. Utter non sense article full of frustration and hate against a particular targeted community. Britishers enslaved Indians for more than a century and looted country wealth to maximum, today no one talk about them .Infact now we go to their country in greed and make enslaved to ourselves. Most of the countries in the world is inhabitate by settlers from outsiders .India is no axception. What a ridiculous thinking imposed on peaceful and hormonal human existence.

  110. it is the Turks madam – Indian Muslims – converts were completely left of any power equations.
    No education nothing. –
    When the East India Company came to India (Bengal) the reestablished the native language i.e., Bengali in 1838 as the official language – while abolishing Arabic and Persian. The condition of Bengali Muslims was worst even compared to the pagans and that too, after 600 years of Turki rule.
    The Turks were dacoits – they just looted, build their palaces and lived a grand life…..while the natives – Muslims natives ensured their legitimacy – as possibly the commander of faithful, and pagan natives – looted for the riches.

  111. Typical leftists prapoganda, tell me one thing who destroyed thousands of Hindu temples and ethnically cleansed Hindus in parts of India .

  112. Ms. Thapar has posited her writing on the past history , going back to ages , which are far and before most of the current tninking.. For the basic question, did we exist as India as we know today, is a very tough one to answer.I think it is generally agreed that it is the british who did the honours.
    We can debate as to who the real indian is . but there will be as many naswers as the people debating it. It is here that the philosophical and politico social leanings come into play. If you were to hear the islamists, they would claim the whole of indian sub continent as islamic and if we were to hear the hindu/RSS side, they have their own definition of Bharat varsh. The idea of a nationalist narrative therefore flows from the idea of nationhood.
    Once this is accepted interpretations of past history automatically flows. be it rama raja, or an islamic ,shariat based rule of law.
    again the same past deeds and misdeeds , when looked through the prism of exploited and exploiters, we get a marxist narrative and a british narrative.
    Partition of india based on religious basis, if we in the residual part accepted it or not is immaterial. has drawn the lines very sharpely
    So a religious bent to the past narrative is inescapable. here we are not helped by available histry of the past. each is a narrative of either the conquerers or, rulers . The cheek by jowl existence of the mosque in Mathura, kashi and the babri issue only reinforced the narrative from the hindu point of view..
    The universalisation of political islam has also not helped.
    At the end of the day each narrative is only a push in the political arena for institutions like JNU have not helped. they hve championed only an acceptable narrative suiting the left and islam.
    The debate is a work in process and will evolve.

  113. The Contribution of JNU, his professor, and “eminent historians” of her ilk has continued the colonial discourse of Indian history. These were the masters of all text books for over two generations. They have so thoroughly distorted the Indian history that we do not know facts from fiction. These historians have successfully whitewashed the atrocities committed under the Muslim rule of India. At least a marxist historian like DD Kosambi was forthright enough to write about intolerance of muslim rulers towards the Hindus. These people have expunged all such source data which proved the cruelty of Muslim rules. Now who cares if this old professor finds it “unacceptable”?

  114. How unfortunate that a novelist ended up writing history.

    Deeply flawed research, premeditated bias and looking everything from colonial lenses, she has done great disservice to historians as a profession.

    She was at the forefront denying the existence of temple beneath Babri community center. Discounting evidence from asi, court appointed excavation. Yet the evidence to the contrary till this date she continues to peddle lies.

    She was the one who made the Islamic invasion and subsequent enslavement virtuous. Pick up ncert history books and you will find paean of Mughal front and back while plunder atrocities jihad of Mughal swept under the rug.

    Her invasion theory and it its subsequent echoing has a fundamental flaw.

    If it were an invasion or migration the culture of the invading or migrating race would be prevalent where they originated from and where the finally reached. On this basis alone AIT/AMT can be debunked.

    I can go on and on and with facts on my side I can debate this novelist without being historian.

    Making her emeritus is a joke and is a symptom of our colonial enslavement and making heroes out of murderers plunderers rapists and ex tooling these suffering as virtuous and resilience.

    We don’t need to have enemies when we have people like her setting the narrative and selling fiction as historical fact.

  115. This article reminds me, how these ’eminent’ historians used to rebutt Arun Shourie . Telling the truth matters.. not what outcomes it leads to; be it national harmony or communalism. That India was not a political state, is true but it certainly was a civilization. But of course our common sense is invalid, only trained historians know the truth- They display the same condescending attitude they accuse others of.

Comments are closed.

Most Popular