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RBI & Modi govt mustn’t let corporates into banking sector without improving supervision

Recent bank failures show that concerns about RBI’s supervisory capacity are relevant. A common feature was RBI allowing problem of bad loans to linger.

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An RBI working group has proposed allowing corporate houses to set up banks in India. This step is fraught with risks.

Given RBI’s record of weak regulatory and supervisory capacity, will the central bank suddenly be able to monitor lending by these banks, especially to their related companies? The burden of failed banks has often rested on public sector bank purchases, with taxpayer money as capital injection.

As a first step, before even discussing such a proposition, the RBI and the government should set up an additional level of checks and balance for banking supervision. This can be provided by an additional supervisor in the shape of a resolution authority like the US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This will require bringing back an amended Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance bill.

Until the combined supervision capacity of the RBI and the proposed resolution authority has shown a healthy track record and been able to detect banks going towards failure, the proposal to allow corporates in banking should be put on the back-burner.

Also read: India’s banking rules need to close the door to tycoon cronyism

Weakness in RBI’s supervisory capacity

Over the last two years, IL&FS, DHFL, Yes Bank and Punjab and Maharashtra Co-operative (PMC) Bank have collapsed due to their weak financial position. The latest to the list of bank failures is Lakshmi Vilas Bank, which was recently placed under moratorium and is to be merged with DBS Bank.

Some of those who have seen the weaknesses in RBI’s supervisory capacity, including former RBI governor Raghuram Rajan and deputy governor Viral Acharya, have raised concerns.

They argue that the proposal to allow corporates in banking will lead to a concentration of economic power, and aggravate the problem of bad lending as depositors’ funds would be diverted to entities owned by the large corporate entities. Highly indebted and politically connected business houses will have the greatest incentive to push for bank licences. Failure of such banks will lead to significant costs to the exchequer. Large conglomerates could first acquire non-bank finance firms, which may then be allowed to convert into banks.

The recent episodes of bank failures show that concerns about RBI’s supervisory capacity are indeed very relevant. RBI could not detect the changes in the composition of banks’ loan portfolios and excessive build-up of risks. A common feature underlying these troubled banks is that RBI allowed the problem of bad loans to linger for long. Banks indulged in the practice of ‘evergreening’ of loans to hide the build-up of bad loans.

Also read: End the domination of public sector banks, not simply recapitalise them. That’s true reform

Current framework not enough  

A framework that assumes healthy corporate governance and a PCA framework, as we have at present, cannot handle potential problems. A string of frauds like the Nirav Modi case and the Chanda Kochhar case show that vesting more powers through legislative amendments, and the regulator using those powers to issue circulars and directions, cannot be a substitute for active supervision and pre-emptive action.

The existing practice of placing banks under the Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) framework does not improve the viability of weak banks. As an example, Lakshmi Vilas Bank was placed under the PCA framework in September 2019, but it did not do much to improve the financial position of the bank.

The costs of lax supervision are borne by savers and depositors who lose access to their hard-earned money. The lack of a resolution framework and law means that if a bank fails, the taxpayer has to pay for it, either directly, or indirectly if SBI or LIC is asked to buy shares of the troubled bank.

If a bank owned by a corporate house fails, and if a public sector bank is forced to buy its shares, then effectively, the taxpayer will be bailing out corporate loans.

Banks set up by large conglomerates are likely to generate negative externalities for the entire financial system in case of their failure. Corporate insolvencies can lead to build up of bad loans in banks owned by big industrial conglomerates.

The inter-connections need to be monitored on a periodic basis. As an example, in the US, the Dodd Frank Act, 2010, created the Financial Stability and Oversight Council (FSOC), comprising the treasury and financial sector regulators. The mandate of the FSOC is to identify risks to financial stability, and respond to emerging system-wide threats.

India does not have the statutory framework to identify and monitor system-wide risks. Previously, it was found in case of the crisis-hit IL&FS that one of the group subsidiaries IL&FS Financial Services’ outstanding loans to other group entities were much higher than the permissible regulatory caps. Loans were routed through other group entities through circuitous transactions to circumvent regulatory norms. Connected lending emerged as one of the key sources of trouble in IL&FS. The problems in IL&FS, a systemically important NBFC, created a contagion impact on the other NBFCs.

Unless the RBI’s regulatory and supervisory capacity is improved, and the lacunae in the financial architecture are addressed through a failure resolution framework and systemic risk regulation, any proposal to allow large corporate houses to set up banks should be shunned.

Ila Patnaik is an economist and a professor at National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.

Radhika Pandey is a consultant at NIPFP.

Views are personal.

Also read: Yes Bank crisis shows why India needs a resolution mechanism to act before it is too late


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  1. RBI has long relinquished its supervisory activities, public sector banks are the single biggest reason for our economic malaise. Privatise these sickmen and save our tax money from funding political henchmen. PSBs are a font of political masters and on whose hoops these jump.

  2. Some of those who have seen the weaknesses in RBI’s supervisory capacity, including former RBI governor Raghuram Rajan and deputy governor Viral Acharya, have raised concerns.
    Are the Governor and deputy governor of RBI so weak and powerless that they cannot correct the weaknesses that they talk about only after demitting the office.
    RBI & Modi govt mustn’t let corporates into banking sector without improving supervision is a very constructive suggestion from an external expert which should have should in fact come from people while lording over RBI at the very top, not years after packing the bags.
    Tax payers pay these people to act and correct things while in authority and not for criticism later.
    The fact is given a choice one would go to INDISIND, KOTAKK, HDFC and ICICI and to any of the PSU Banks, if this was not observed by the bosses at RBI the les said the better.

  3. Sab changa si. Relax, don’t listen to tukde tukde gang.

    We have very capable leadership in the RBI (now that Harvard types are thrown out), at the center, in Mumbai and in ahmvedavad. Together they can manage the whole country alongwith all the airports, the retail and the telecom sectors.

    If one is unlucky sometimes a bank or two might go bust, but haven’t we already seen it’s no problem at all, or atleast what can be projected to those not directly affected by these incidents.

  4. Already India’s PSU banks are run by corporates. Corporates have direct access to tax payers and depositors funds through them. So where is the need for separate banks owned by corporates.

  5. This policy is a disaster of epic proportions in the making. It’s like Alan Greenspan bear sterns reality now set in India.

    Corporation by definition have profit as motto.

    So many sahkari banks in Maharashtra are like a mini corporation. Backed by politicians reaping consumer deposits and one fine day all the deposits are vanished in thin layer.

    The list is endless.

    If the RBI cannot regulate these sahkari or for that matter psu banks in accumulating npa after npa what guarantees the public has when these corporations make a run for consumer deposits and bring down the whole banking system.

    Just wait for it and these corporates run bank will be asking for bailout just like bear sterns Lehman brothers.

    That’s just finance 101.

  6. Ila ma’am along with many others make the right point. We also need to address the horrifying HR management of the Indian state (govt, regulators, judiciary, police etc). Unless the RBI/sebi etc regulators hire more people for supervisory roles, and indian state needs to hire more police, judges, doctors etc. However a lot of the energy and money seems to go to obsolete clerks, peons, accountants and the likes who can be replaced by a single program made by a 3rd yr Computer science engineer.

    Time for a radical change in HR of indian state. Unless that is done a lot of reforms in social/political/economic spheres will not fructify.

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