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China believes India wants Aksai Chin back. PLA has likely secured 40-60 sq km in Ladakh

Ladakh is the only area where physical military collusion can take place between Pakistan and China.

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Something unusual has been happening on the Line of Actual Control, the de facto border between India and Tibet, for the past four weeks. On 10 May, the Indian media broke the news about scuffles between Indian and Chinese soldiers on the north bank of Pangong Tso on the night of 5-6 May and at Naku La in north Sikkim on 9 May.

Since then, reports have emerged about intrusions and ‘face-offs’ in the Galwan River , on the north bank of Pangong Tso, and possibly at Hot Springs in Chang Chenmo River valley, and at Demchok. Mirror deployment has been carried out by both sides with additional troops, and reserves have been positioned  to cater for any escalation. There are also reports of increased helicopter activity and ‘one-off’ deterrent fighter aircraft mission by India. There are some reports of increased military activity from other areas along the LAC, particularly in the central sector in Uttarakhand. Satellite images of fighter aircraft parked at Ngari, 50km from the LAC have been published in the media. There is speculation that patrol confrontations and Chinese build-up began end-April.

Chinese media and official spokespersons have accused India of aggressively trespassing Chinese claim line and blocking People’s Liberation Army (PLA) patrols. Chinese President Xi Jinping has exhorted his troops to be prepared to defend the nation.

In the absence of any government or military briefings, there are speculations galore about the details of the incidents on the LAC and the political/military aims of China. More so, after the two informal summits between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Xi — at Wuhan in 2018 and Mamallapuram in 2019 — wherein both leaders had committed to maintain peace and tranquility on the LAC and give strategic directions to their militaries on border management.

The starting point of any conflict between two nations is the political aim. Military actions are merely the means to achieve that aim. I will reverse the process and analyse the military situation and strategic importance of the areas of the India-China ‘face-offs’ to derive the political aims.

Also read: India waits for China’s diplomatic words to ‘translate into action on ground’ at LAC in Ladakh

Military situation

At the outset, let me be very categoric — just like in 1962, 1965, and 1999, we have once again been surprised both at the strategic and tactical levels. The manner in which we had to rush reinforcements from other sectors gives a clear indication that we were surprised. At the strategic level, it was the failure of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) to detect the build-up of the PLA formations from the rear bases to replace the border defence units. Our tactical surveillance with UAVs and patrols has been inadequate to detect this large-scale movement close to the LAC. The ITBP mans the border and ironically is not under the command of the army.

As per unconfirmed reports, the PLA has crossed the LAC and physically secured 3-4 km of our territory along Galwan River and the entire area between Finger 5 and Finger 8 along the north bank of Pangong Tso, a distance of nearly 8-10 km (the areas are marked in this Indian Express sketch in its 2017 report). There also seem to be minor incursions in the area of Hot Springs, in Ladakh’s Chang Chenmo River valley and at Demchok.

My assessment is that the PLA has deployed maximum one brigade each in Galwan River valley and along the north bank of Pangong Tso. Precautionary deployment would have been done at likely launch pads for offensive and other vulnerable areas along the LAC. Reserves would be on short notice to cater for Indian reaction/escalation. The airfield at Ngari has been upgraded and fighter aircraft have been positioned there. It is likely that additional troops have been deployed at Depsang plains, Hot Springs, Spanggur Gap, and Chumar.

Likely area secured by PLA in North Bank Pangong Tso | Lt Gen HS Panag
Likely area secured by PLA in Galwan River | Lt Gen HS Panag

It is pertinent to mention that the intrusion by regular troops is not linear like normal border patrols going to respective claim lines. If a brigade size force has secured 3-4 km in Galwan River, it implies that the heights to the north and south have been secured, thus securing a total area of 15 to 20 square km. Similarly, along Pangong Tso, the PLA brigade having secured 8-10 km on the north bank would have also secured the dominating heights to the north to physically control 35-40 square km. And if China subsequently realigns its claim line based on the areas secured, the net area secured would increase exponentially.

Our deployment in the central sector is thin. PLA build-up of maximum one brigade in the central sector is to tie down our strategic reserves by posing a threat and to gain territory in the event of escalation. In north Sikkim, a limited threat indication has been given in the plateau area to caution us against an escalatory offensive into the Chumbi valley. Precautionary deployment would have been done in Arunachal Pradesh.

The likely military aim of China is to stop the development of our border infrastructure in Ladakh that threatens Aksai Chin and National Highway (NH) 219, particularly in Galwan , Hot Springs and Pangong Tso sectors, and depending on our reaction, to be prepared for a limited border skirmish.

Also read: Modi, Jaishankar know Beijing better than most, & that could help defuse tension with China

Strategic importance of the ‘faceoff’ areas

Ladakh is the only area where physical military collusion can take place between Pakistan and China. Sub Sector North (SSN) lies just to the East of Siachen glacier and is our vulnerability due to the tenuous lines of communications, notwithstanding the recommissioned Daulat Beg Oldi airfield. It is also the only area that provides direct access to Aksai Chin from India. China does not want any threatening build-up in SSN. Fifteen years ago, a Chinese military war game was conducted that visualised a division size force along with a mechanised force launching an offensive from SSN into Aksai Chin.

Keeping in view our vulnerability, we began constructing two roads to SSN in 2007. The first was from Sosoma in Nubra River valley via Saser La pass. Unfortunately, Saser La is snowbound. Unless we make a tunnel, it would at best remain a summer road. The second, 255-km-long road was built along the Shyok River valley from Darbuk via Murgo and Depsang. While this is a marvel of engineering through the gorges of Shyok River, it runs parallel to the LAC up to Murgo. The junction of Shyok and Galwan rivers is only 5 km from the LAC. We commenced construction of a branch road to the LAC and this resulted in the face-off in the Galwan River valley. China does not want us to create defences in the Galwan River valley to protect the road to SSN. The earlier face-off in Depsang plains in 2013 was also linked to this road.

The other approach to Aksai Chin is from the south via the Chang Chenmo River valley, at the end of which is located our post of Hot Springs, 3 km short of Kongka La. We have developed a road to this area from Lukung via Phobrang – Marsimik La and along the Chang Chenmo River. This is possibly the area of a minor face-off.

From this road, another road branches off at Phobrang to the southeast to Ane La pass. This pass is open throughout the year. This area allows us to get behind the Chinese defences on the north bank of Pangong Tso at Sirijap and Khurnak. The north bank of Pangong Tso has a number of spurs, known as fingers, coming down from the north. We physically control the area up to Finger 4 but patrol up to Finger 8 on the LAC near Sirijap. The Chinese have their post at Finger 8 but claim up to Finger 2 from where both these roads can be threatened. During Kargil 1999, the Chinese had built a road up to Finger 5 where the third face-off is taking place.

Ngari in the Indus Valley is an important Chinese base with an airfield. NH 219 passes through Ngari. It is only 50 km from Demchok and here we have the terrain advantage. Ngari can also be threatened from Chumar. This is the reason for frequent face-offs in these areas.

Also read: India to seek ‘amicable solution’ with China amid military build-up on LAC

Political aim

From the strategic point of view, China had secured all Indian territories it needed to before 1962, that is primarily Aksai Chin required for the Tibet-Xinjiang NH 219. Following the 1962 War, it vacated all additional captured territory, barring some tactically important areas in Ladakh denying access to Aksai Chin and NH 219 as per its 1960 claim line in Depsang, Galwan River, Sirijap-Khurnak Fort north of Pangong Tso, and Kailash Range 10 km north of Demchok.

Since then, the confrontations along the LAC have been more about China asserting its hegemony by embarrassing India. However, India’s developing border infrastructure has altered the situation.

China is extremely suspicious of India. It believes that in the long term, India’s strategic aim is to restore the status quo ante 1950 by recovering Aksai Chin and other areas captured/secured by China. India’s alignment with the US, the presence of Tibetan government-in-exile in India, and the aggressive claims on Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Gilgit Baltistan — through which the prestigious China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) passes — only strengthen China’s suspicion.

Much as I would like to speculate about China’s broader political aims, the direct political aim is simple — to maintain the “status quo” along the LAC on its own terms, which is to forestall any threat, howsoever remote, to Aksai Chin and NH 219.

Also read: India wants LAC status quo maintained, China demands India should stop construction activity

Stare China down

We made a fundamental military mistake of not securing the area in strength before we attempted to improve our border infrastructure in sensitive areas. The PLA preempted us.

India is in a catch-22 situation. No government will survive a setback on the LAC. Every time China precipitates the situation, even with limited forces, we have to be prepared for the worse, which forces us to mobilise at a much larger scale. Ideally, we must seize the initiative for quid pro quo actions either preemptively or in response. However, our military capability imposes caution. But we can certainly give the aggressor a bloody nose and stalemate it.

Be that as it may, we have the capability and the will to stare China down and force it to blink. Neither country wants war, hence diplomacy has to be given the first priority to restore status quo ante 1 April 2020. However, if diplomacy does not work, then India should be prepared for border skirmishes and even a limited war.

Last but not the least, once the status quo has been restored, we must hold the Narendra Modi government and the military accountable for the intelligence failure, the loss of territory, if any, that has taken place, and the asymmetry with respect to our capability vis-a vis China.

Lt Gen H S Panag PVSM, AVSM (R) served in the Indian Army for 40 years. He was GOC in C Northern Command and Central Command. Post-retirement, he was Member of Armed Forces Tribunal. Views are personal.

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  1. the print, the wire, the quint all pseudoSucular naxalite jehadiNaxal missionary backstabber gaddar prestitute media channels and must be banned to fart false news

  2. every drop of blood every Indian will give to save our borders along with our Jawans
    we are ready to stand with jawans & fight to get all the area occupied by Pakistan and China back
    into India. Jai Bharat

  3. The Print – usual anti Modi and hidden anti-India agenda. Hold Nehru responsible for the Tibet problem. The world knows. Your days of fooling people by paid media are over.

  4. My respects to Lt. Gen. Panag, but you should have implemented this when you were GOC NC and CC, situation was the same even then, the only thing was the incursions then were not known to the public or media as they are are known today, the only difference is action was taken this time, casualties are bound to happen in a face off!!

  5. Modi government is very good at hiding its failures. It successful in the past 6 years doing that. Modi’s 56 inch chest thumps only against small countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan etc. But when it comes to China, he starts begging other countries like USA, Russia etc. China has occupied the Galwan valley and its nearby area. That is a fact. Modi can’t do anything now. Now he has to find new ways to hide his failure and once again fool the people of India. We the people of India deserve to suffer because we elected such a coward prime minister.

    • Don’t blame political leadership when there are too many holes in our system. In 1999 Pakistan easily sat in the vacant post of the Indian army at Kargil, and that was a total intelligence failure. Chinese army at Ladakh has done similar intrusion with pre-planning. Indian armed forces are always on the defensive position and in this situation, our neighbours are taking advantage. Pakistan is sending armed terrorists, intrusion by Chinese on different border points, in 2001 about 20 BSF personnel were abducted and killed by Bangladesh Border force. Indo Bangladesh border is about 4097 km., Indo-Nepal border is about 1751 km., India- Pakistan is about 3323 km., India-China is about 3323 km., India-Myanmar is about 1643 km., India-Bhutan is 699 km.
      The Total land border is about 15107 km. You should first analyze India’s geographical situation. It is easy to blame.

    • Mr retarded, are u in this world or Mars. India will apply solutions based on the situation. Solution for Pakistan will not be suitable for China, Now Chinese back and Pakistan is putting burnol behind, give kudos to Indian Govt now at least, if you are Indian ( you may be fake id from Pak)

  6. Panag is talking nonsense as usual. There is no intrusion in the Galwan Valley as of now. It was till 25th May when they had pitched up two tents 50 meters on our side of the river after which the PLA retreated to their side of the LAC.

    • like for you, you seem to give a proper reply. I hope we will be able to get link to wakhan corridor, and get hold to aksai chin.

    • Let’s say what the General says is true.

      Has this scenario never been worked out before in any war game?

      The way it is being narrated is as if we have thought about this and have realised the possibility of this taking over of heights for the first time.

      Since the General is being so candid about facts which he seems to know here, he should have given a statement about how these scenarios and counter strategies have already been considered and worked out. And how we have failed to implement an already existing counter strategy- and allowed the opponent to take over heights.

      If we have not- and the incursion has not taken place, isn’t it high time we work out a clear counter strategy which would kick in the moment this is about to happen?

    • A veteran army officer now needs tactical and military advise from you….some mama’s boy sitting online on papas funded iPhone? I think not.

  7. IT LOOKS AS IF INDIA KI BURI TARAH PHAT RAHI HAI. Against Pakistan on J&K conflict, India does not agree for any mediation or arbitration, Always Refuses. Similar situation arises with China, but this time, to the contrary, China does not allow any one to interfere, where as India is begging, and trying its best for a 3rd country mediation, particularly USA to intervene. NO BUDDY IT IS NOT EASY THIS TIME. You Indians, will suffer the worst when combined wrath of China, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bengladesh will perish you from the East, West, North and South, and create a HAVOC, you never faced from your inception as yet. YOU DESERVE IT.

    • Lol! Don’t talk like a jackass when you know nothing! 93,000 Paki fauj shamelessly surrendered to the Indian Army in 1971. Have you forgotten? And you were thrown out of Kargil with 4000 casualties. I’m not saying this. It is a White Paper by your previous government led by Nawaz Sharif! Lol!
      1 Indian = 10 Pussy Islamic Army personnel of Bhikaristan!

      • Absolutely true @mike singh…to understand porkistanis need some brains ..which they never had!!!!

  8. Soon India will break into many little pieces. This is what the prediction is from many scholars and people. Looks like this is what started already.

    • Are you talking about Porkistan…I mean Bhikaristan?? Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh and KPK are all going to be seperate countries soon. And why have you given yourself a Hindu name when you are a Porky? Scared of being a Muslim? Lol!

    • But before that, they will irradiate CCP from China, bring freedom to HongKong, Taiwan, Ladakh and Xinjiang. We Chinese People support india, because we know that our own country and it’s government are fake! And should be treated like the Muslim will treat a pig! All the best India!

    • Only a paki talks like this manner… You shall never feel our bonding our solidarity to our mother land… There may be many misconsensious between us on matters but end of the day in India hindu muslim bhai bhai…

  9. The article looks very biased. Some what like wanting India to fail at Ladakh against the China to show the Modi Government down. Mr. Shekhar Gupta is trying to “WALK HIS TALK”. He wanted to spread a lot of wrong information and lies to discredit the current government. But mind you Modi is not the chicken which the Congress PM’s were. He is going all out to get our Aksai Chin from the Chinese.

    • Shekher Gupta was very anti-India and very anti-Hindu when he was Editor-in-Chief of Indian Express.

  10. Indian only know the name of pakistan Indian are so afraid from pakistan full day and night india is talking about pakistan. China captured Ladakh valley and Indian and india Media is silent Like a death .

    • You’re responding to an article published by an Indian media outlet, while claiming that India is not adequately covering this news. Your IQ seems to be below the freezing point of water. And well, we don’t obsess over China’s pet – frankly they’re nothing to slobber over.

  11. There’s a large military camp at Mandalthang on the right bank of the Shyok. It is bang opposite the wide confluence of the Galwan with the Shyok on the left bank. How is it possible that such an intrusion could happen- if it has happened?

  12. Without a firm border, China is using its military might to encroach few inches/meters/kilometers of land every day. They will encroach and then alter maps claiming that land as theirs. This is the reason 20+ number of border talks has not resulted in any firm borders. As Indians fight among themselves (as clearly evident in this forum) China will keep pushing soft borders to their advantage. India has to fortify, build infrastructure along border and occupy high areas in the region. India has to keep claiming its areas aggressively but on the ground has to first protect what it has and gain control over LAC.

  13. Calm down guys, this is to just show India its place in the world. You are only good at threatening Nepal and Bangladesh. So China is sending you a message, know your place, don’t act like a chief.

    • Then we will show to all our neighbours also who we are just like China dropped a virus to thwart the other nations. India is peaceful country but if tested again all Indians will give life to kill minimum 5 traitors or enemies…

    • Heard pakistan is carrying the begging bowl again to IMF, your army loots your country while you are in love with ertugrul😂😂

    • And already we know what pakistan is a beggar and failed nation just bark my dog just bark converted extremist dog my ass

    • Don’t be this happy and mind Ur own bloody business, China will be taught a lesson soon and then it will be your turn, the land of Pakistan is also ours that we shall take back soon

      When u r yourself not independent, don’t speak about others, u too accept that u r dependent on Ur current father China otherwise what have u got other than the atom bomb whose formula was even stolen by Ur ppl. What do u know other than terrorism and war.

    • Ohhh look, a Chinese pet is wagging its tail to get some scraps from the table. So adorable!! Now roll over. Now go back to your corner and, let the humans talk..

  14. Author has managed to put names of raw, present government but surprisingly has skipped why even after 1962 there was no upgrade of indian army which he was part of and where was all modernization in border region till point of LAC , it is only after ramping up border infrastructure of current government the Chinese fear a fast retaliation which was not possible till now . Does author want to say pre 2014 there were no incursion or there were no report published in media . Author should have left his job in response to inadequate modernization in army and write article then , not after enjoying everything in army you start current day government without even holding accountable about how serious blunder previous government have done .Why there is intelligence failure needs to be studied and R&AW should be restructured for current day war .

  15. Indian PM Narendra Modi is busy selling cheap Chinese phones loaded with Chinese malware to gullible Indians. He wants to do business with China knowing fully well that China had been usurping Indian territory for years now. Trade deficit with China doubled during Modi’s tenure. Modi will happily give away more territory to China. Modi and BJP will certainly face the wrath of Indian voters for bowing down to China. How can Modi govt green signal Huawei in India’s 5G trials is beyond my wildest imagination, unless BJP was being bribed by the Chinese CCP party.

  16. Well well, looks like Endia is working hard to a face saving exit and fooling their nation again but the reality is China has gained territory and Endia cannot do squat about it. The bhakti Hindutva terrorist army of Endia can only do cowardly acta in Endian occupied Kashmir to innocent and besieged Kashmiris. Shame on the world watching and goading this terrorist state called Endia.

    • Comes from the mouth of resident of country,which spreads terrorism worldwide, is a home to so many terrorist groups and terrorists which are being sheltered there!

  17. A few things are really clear.
    1. China is an evil empire and can never ever be trusted.
    2. India needs to get its act together, get economically strong and stop meaningless internal squabbles.
    3. Start focusing on excellence. Enough of the quota system and corruption and casual attitudes. Develop strong technology based businesses.
    4. Create a strong domestic manufacturing and defense sector.

    • Just take back Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(POK) from Pakistan. There should not be any land border between China and Pakistan. 100% of all the problems will be finished immediately. We had our land border with Afghanistan before 1947. We need that border on extremely urgent note now.

      And yes after POK,it’s going to be the turn of COK(China occupied Kashmir),Aksai Chin area of India.

    • Just take back Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(POK) from Pakistan. There should not be any land border between China and Pakistan. 100% of all the problems will be finished immediately. We had our land border with Afghanistan before 1947. We need that border on extremely urgent note now.

      And yes after POK,it’s going to be the turn of COK(China occupied Kashmir),Aksai Chin area of India.

  18. Lt General HS Panag ex GOC-in-C Northern Command Indian Army has brought out realistically the territorial capture north of Pangong tso lake, Fingers area & Galwan Valley in Ladakh by China clearly showing strategic failure of R&AW once again like during Kargil Ltd war and his observation of failure of Indian Army to secure areas north of LAC strategically important along the line of construction of roads by India which would have thwarted Chinese from territorial grab that has happened now. Restoration of status quo along LAC as highlighted by him is the only option remaining now for India to pursue and to be prepared for limited border skirmishes to achieve the same.

  19. China cannot attack India ,already it’s economy is coming down ,people in China are jobless, their dream of silk route will not happen before it was in history, now second
    time also it will be history.
    Pakistani live on other people’s money .
    China should be sensible ,it is taking sympathy vote from Nepal,Pakistan etc

    His own home ground is under fire.

    If China burn and attack other innocent people’s houses.
    China own houses will get burnt .

    Jaisi karni vasi badni

    One day this own country will get burned

  20. The advancement across the border is worrisome. China is a powerful neighbor. Deployment of Army and chopper across Border needs stronger strategic response from this side For Deterrence. Aim should be to prevent any confrontation between the two countries. This is not a right time to reclaim any acquiesced territory. There are many other important internal issues, our country is battling with. Avoiding a war is the best strategy and is the need of the present time. We need not invite a War rather should in a manner so that No country could force a war upon us.

    • Bro that is china’s strategy! They attack the enemy at the time when he is unprepared!
      We understand what you are saying is definitely true.
      But, it is the time to teach Chinese a taste of their own shit, in their own way!
      Even if it takes a war to do that! This will help for a lot of coming years, as china is day by day trying to enter indian borders!
      Neeyat khrab h un bhosadiwalo ki!
      Jaanke permanent borders ni bnate, jisse ki soft borders ko aage push krte rhne me dikkat na ho!! Abhi hadap hadap ke pet bhra ni h inka!!

  21. “At the strategic level, it was the failure of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) to detect the build-up of the PLA…. Our tactical surveillance has been inadequate …. The ITBP mans the border and ironically is not under the command of the army.”

    This is no time for turf battles General Panag, or to take cheap shots at other arms of the government. The Army is very much in charge of major parts the LAC in Ladakh such as parts of the line at the Pangong Tso, and the ITBP is in charge along other segments.

    In any case, now that the Chinese have intruded 3 km across the LAC into the Galwan valley – a region that was never claimed by them – it is clear that they have poked a finger in our eye and challenged us to do what we will. They have turned down our requests for the local army commanders to meet. Why then are we not taking action to evict them or to occupy an equal portion of their territory that we never claimed? Why does our Army chief give interviews to the media saying that these intrusions are nothing unusual and arise from differing perceptions of the LAC? That is patently untrue, the Galwan valley intrusion is not such a case, there was no disagreement about where the LAC lay there. First recover the land, there will be time later
    for the customer finger pointing and one-upmanship.

  22. Chinese wd act tough along as they can get away.Time has come to prepared for allout war and let the Chinese know.Today if NorthKorea can hold USAthere is no way to think that India cannot give back to China more than they can.Let the Chinese know this and they will retreat and not trouble for some time.

    • @kumar C Hahahahaha. Are you kidding me? Open your eyes wide open and look if you can afford an enemy like China.

  23. I really laugh reading the comments. Hanuman Teer, attacking POK and India is not a cat but a Lion… such a shame for this hindu extremist ‘Modi’ who has not only disgraced India globally but also has proven to be not more than a hindu goon. India Army… oh god. With their antique war arsenals and trembling courage can only lead operations on armless kashmiriz. Fighting with PLA is a nightmare for these poor souls. Modi is going to face his fate.

    • Awwww… That’s why you are reading this article with so much interests… 😁 😁.. Kahin Chinese products ki trha China v na doob jae… I know you people fancy us… Coz you can never be like us… And forget about our Army… Its the biggest,largest, strongest… Now fancy that..

    • might be they are antique but far better than yours!!
      Urs belong to stone age.
      Apne logo ko Roti khilane ke paise to hai ni pakistan ke pas. Ab china ko nya baap bna lia hai jisse bheekh mang skein aur pet bhr ske.
      Fer bhi us paise se pet ni bhrenge apna, pr us paise ko atankwaad ke lie use krenge, fer akhir me apna thooka hua tumhare hi mooh me aake girta hai!!
      India ke sath shuru se kadam milake chle hote to aj sthiti achhi hoti, yun roz naye baap dhundhne ki zroorat na pdti!!

  24. After having held such a big rank in army now u speaking of military mistakes is very very saddening. While u were in army we hear u made everyone go through 5 km run and assessed them on this single criteria. Pity the army . Jaisa Raja vaisa praja. Think sir think.

  25. Yes, It was our indian Teritory, we need it back
    Why are you Encroaching
    Chinese dogs get up and leave, you land beggers

  26. India never trust your neighbours, they are waiting for your fall…….how come you let them stab your back…..its time to fight back….

  27. article is elaborate and good but it would be desirable if the General had given a more professional sense to the article than a political tinge. Was it demanded by the newspaper don’t know.The meek submissions of successive Indian Governments is equally responsible for the Chinese belligerence , should we not hold them also responsible or should we condone their inefficiencies for,”Jo ho gaya so ho gaya”

  28. The Author has a negative mindset and his pessimism is visible in the latter part of the article. Being a public forum he should have brought out SWOT analysis of the chinese and thier finger print methods across the globe to try out military diplomacy. The authors aim here seems just to blame everyone R&AW, Army, Modi etc and demoralised the Nation and its citizen most of whom would not comprehend his military jargon. Best this article is suited for junior officers as a ‘Could Know’ input.

  29. Their illegal demand’s won’t gonna stop if we become submissive . Once and for all, Befitting reply is a must!

  30. The print , you are an idiot. Anti Indian, anti Hindu for every small action taken by government, you only do one thing keep modi government accountable. Anyways we had before 2014 impotent government and you want the same government. Idiot print.

  31. If Pakistan tries another military advance with India, the best think India can do is place 10 nukes strategically in Pakistan. In the meantime, India should do two things.

    1) Call for talks with the Taliban in Afghanistan and extend help to rebuild Afghanistan at a discount; not free.
    2) threaten China to take its military away from the border or lose India’s markets and do that. Or at least require that all sales from China be limited to the amount purchased from India. And stop shipping raw materials and only finished goods.

      the so called INDIAN


      KICK OUT ……………..AJIT DOVEL…………….as he can begin afresh as your DISCIPLE in tactics of STATE TERRORISM

    • You are a ( Negative) genius, you desire to be PM , try your luck in 2024 . Bakths will love you….

  32. China should be made any ally. India shouldn’t be befriending USA who are dumping sins openly like pornography, adultery, cheating, shameless things which God doesn’t permit. Morally, our society has become corrupt with all these sins where now a days kids are openly getting into living relationships, liquor, prostitution to mimick USA. Look at the family structure of Chinese as compared to USA. 1 in every 5 home of USA has been shattered with family feuds and divorces. Step father in law , mother in law is a norm. I may be called an old conservative man when it comes to family but this notion is also accepted by good american who sees America heading in wrong direction. There are very good American values as well but Indians are more indulged in their bad things rather than good. Look at Canada , USA how good neighborhours they are. Look at England, France. India is a different nation with different culture but God’s basic rules applies same to everyone. Beside that geo politically we are very far from USA. India should befriend China. Stop being ambitious of POK and Aksai Chin. Clean our own society. Become a welfare society. Land size doesn’t determine happiness. Look at Indian history of atleast 3000 years back no borders have been the same throughout. Protect what we have, improve life standards, protect eastern thoughts of nonviolence, chastity, prosperity and family structure and also remember God. That is the human goal. Indian culture has enough to offer to the world.

    • Good thoughts. You are definitely a Sikh. Because a hindu cannot come up with such noble, rational and wise thoughts these days. Hindus think they have become a superpower and their Army is about to defeat China, and conquer Azad Kashmir, GB and Aksai Chin….and not just that, they believe Hindus will break up Pakistan, China and establish Akhand Bharat Hindu Rashtra.

      The only way forward for peace I think is for our Hindu brethren to given up their expansionist dreams, end atrocities in Kashmit and cooperate with China and Pakistan for mutual benefit and development of the whole region. Not saying, India should give up what it holds in Kashmir, but should pacify the people there, instead of killing them using the Hindu army.

    • Bro, nice thought , but china doesn’t feel so, they are consistently entering our borders, time to give it back to them!

  33. indian army is actually very week army just good on paper a country could not buy a battle gun for 40 years after boforce a country which is using third rate mig and jagwar which even small countries are throwing in dustbin a country which is making 4gen jet trjus when whole world is making 6gen jets no good anti missle system only gundas are fighting and enganging people for this or that election throughout year a country whose army chief is saying we will fight at 3corridoors when his army doest know that china has taken 30%of ladkah already over these years

  34. First Respected Col. what is the source of information when No govt and Military report in public . If is happen then our entire lenient system of thinking and act is responsible . We are still living in 20th century when it comes to defense,security and cyber space . If we would not able to regain our grounds under Modi we can never achieve this . Poor defense procurement and infrastructure we got tired of listening this .

  35. How come we always have intelligence and military failures. We are calling ourselves the fourth largest military in the world for gods sake. There was an intelligence failure during Kargil then there were intelligence failures during 26/11 and we see Akshay Kumar glorifying RAW in his movies which has failed to provide intelligence during crunch times. India should never trust China and Pakistan no matter what. Keep the borders sealed, with both these countries we should play aggressor. Hope we learn from our mistakes and stop false glorification like the Abhinandan episode.

    • You MF , do u have any idea how horrifying and painfull it was for Wing Commander Abhinandan or any Indian soldier who was captured by Pak. You dont understand the pain they and their familes had to go through! You, you just judge it as a glorification, that’s ridiculous. I dont think you are even an Indian😡😠

  36. ‘prestigious economic corridor’, what ever that means. It may be prestigious for China only and Pak will learn one day of Chinese dream bitterly. They are already under huge debt trap and our friend has got the temerity to talk about barking dogs and dreaming Hindus,as if they are embodiment of all virtues.

  37. Well! China crushed India militarily in 1962 and illegally occupied 33,000 Square Miles of strategic Territory which gives them an edge over Indian army at most of the areas to launch or resume operations whenever it wants; But yes, It’s not then Prime minister Pt. Jawarharlal Nehru who is responsible for this utter humiliation and decisive loss but present Prime minister Narendra Modi who dared to allow scale up of border infrastructure with China at a much faster pace.
    No elite talks of that mammoth loss of prime Indian territory in 1962 that happened because of a Prime minister who ignored modernisation and upgradation of Indian Army after 1947!
    Off course, PM Modi is in charge of country today but he got a legacy of military defeat to Chinese and illegal occupation of Indian lands by it.

    Let’s stand with our prime minister and nation;Wars are fought with will and valour,Our purpose is to protect and secure our territorial sovereignity and entire countrymen must stand up to stare down Chinese

  38. Ultimately what we realised? Chinese again transgressed about 3 to 4 Kms. in the non disputed area of Galvan valley, the finger area of Pangong Tso also. We again lost that area under BJP rule. Actually what this Govt. achieved, nationally total failure in all respects and internationally it made all the neighbours enemy. In six years our PM toured over 100 countries, achievement is negative. Two landmark event one is statue of unity with Chinese made, and a big scam of Rafale amounting to about 26 thousand crores of rupees several thousand times bigger than BOFORS scam.

  39. I just came to read meltdown of bhakts. Snoflakes.

    Nehru never blamed britishers for border issues but snowflakes just cannot take reality on face value. And the reality is that all of modi team are bunch of jokers. First time in india trains are running haywire because the railway minister can only tweet. Whole of bjp is just an IT cell pretending to be government. No wonder there is so much mayhem.

    The fact: previous government made all the roads near borders. It was duty of current government to do the vigilance. But as usual they failed to do even the basics. I don’t think China made incursion within seconds that we were not aware. They must have taken months for all these and yet chest thumping 56 cms are clueless.

  40. There are many articles trying to give clarity on what’s happening between India and China. But this article sums up the situation in the best possible way. Please note, the last time China provided strong objections to India was when Amit Shah unilaterally announced that India is ready to take back POK, Gilgit Baltistan, and Aksai Chin. This was announced when article 370 was abrogated and Ladakh was made a union territory. Also, note that China objected only to the statement about Aksai Chin. India did two mistakes: 1. Unilateral announcement about Aksai Chin when there exists a border mechanism between India and China to resolve issues locally. 2. China continuously increased infrastructure near LAC whereas India was late in doing that. This could also have resulted in surprises for India. But now India got aware of the things. The Lt. Gen. H S Panag beautifully states, “we have the capability and the will to stare China down and force it to blink”, India should stand firm on its demand for China to maintain the status quo.

    • We do, if they think they have it easy they really need to rethink whether they can hold on to what they took.

  41. I dont know what is giong wrong with the world, China have enough land for her people so India, instead of education, helth development, and other humsn needs they starts quarelling on piece of land not enough even to burrey their dead.

    • Its not about piece of land !! Ye hmari matribhoomi hai, hmara garv hai, hmara swabhiman hai!
      Kaisi soch h bhai? Aaj ye lenge, kl Arunachal, sikkim fer Himachal fer ptani kya kya?
      One should never think like that!
      Koi padosi tumhare ghr ke ek kamre me(of ur mom n dad) zbrdsti tum piche hat jaoge? Ki lejao muje zrurt ni hai?
      Shrm ani chaie h aisi soch pe.. wo desh hi kya jo apni matribhoomi ki, swabhiman ki raksha na kr ske!

  42. Best way forward for India is to force up on POK and destabilize CPEC, which in fact indirectly effect china. Avoid any direct escaltion

      • If Chinese join with Pakistani army, India should openarmly welcome Israel and USA for help, and make Pak and China taste their own shit!

    • No point of blaming Nehru and his stupidity as it is a bygone era.The present government should concentrate on building it’s defence capability with a view on China.It is better to use diplomacy but take back the 80 sq kilometers of land by force as a last resort.

      • Because he support nehru family
        Now he want for this we question modi
        They are anti Indian
        I want know who give this information
        He just like ravish ndtv

    • Good joke more plz. Pakistan is a nuclear power and we are always ready to give you a surprise you can never surprise us because bravery, courage and valour is in our blood.

  43. Seriously ?! Why don’t we start with holding Sonia Gandhi , Manmohan Singh, and co responsible for the asymmetry with respect to our capabilities vis a vis China ?!

  44. India must show that it’s not a cat but a tiger by reclaiming akshi China . Always it is India which loses its territories to neighbours . Why? We have given enough land to Bangladesh, Pakistan & China now is the time to reclaim .Why Indian Armed strength doesn’t show its potentiality ? We should liberate Tibet also . How long will India feed and tend for Tibetian refugees ?

    • Its easy talking from home to ask our soldiers to fight..!! They are also humans and have families like you. They are not a tool or toy that will just go on fighting on ur wish.
      War has never helped anyone. Peace is what we all want.

      • Ye bat tumhe smj me ati hai bhai, hme smjh me ati h bhai,… Pr kuch desh aise hn jo ke desh hone ke naam pe kalank hai jinhe smjh ni aati.

    • Bose Babu it is because Hindustan is a land of 1.4 billion crows who can only do kao kao but cannot fight. Only a 1.5 million army people capable of fighting rest hindus will only crow or mob lynch minorites but feces in their shorts when faced by Chinese, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis.

  45. People who for decades have not only shied from holding Nehru accountable for the loss of Aksai Chi, but supported it in different ways, now suddenly want the Modi Government to be held accountable

    • Tuchiye There have been many articles in print which holds Nehru responsible for Aksai Chin.. Ab jab Modi ke time me Land China occupy kiya toh Phir se Nehru ko responsible batao ge kya?
      Tu Tere baap ke aulad hai ya dada ka?

    • kal aap agar pm bante h to aapko bhi jimedaar tharaya jana chhiye. man lo tum bharat ke nagric h tum desh me mhamari se niptoge ya phir ladai karene border pe jaoge…..

  46. Tha author skips the reality that all these years, nothing has been done by Congress successive govt’s to protect India’s borders. It’s the Congress which list aksai chin, pok etc. It’s now only we see some infrastructure being built, military capabilities enhances, diplomacy at its best. But author chose to blame Midi govt for the mess. I don’t know why even experts in the filed can’t even take a dispassionate view and write only one sided fictional stories.

  47. Typical rant of a failed old man,who lives on the crumbs doled by his political masters and can go to any extent to damage our beloved country India,in his blind pursuits.

  48. The writer is naive enough to believe that the modi government s responsibility will be fixed for intelligence faluire what happened in Pulwama did any one came to ask even a question.,He won the election by fooling the people in the name of Pulwama martyrs.So don’t daydream modi is capable of any strike surgical or otherwise.

  49. Where are the Modi Bhakts now? Maybe the RSS can lead the fight against the Chinese at the border? Where are the Gaurakshaks, mob lynchers who were fighting for Hindu pride? Should we send them to the border for a real fight? Maybe this special brigade should be led by Goon in Chief Raj Thackeray of MNS and BJP motor mouths.

    BJP and Indians talk a lot but when it comes to the crunch few rise to the occasion. And I will be hated for saying this: See how smartly Pakistan solved it’s border issues with China more or less along the McCartney MacDonald Line in the 1960s.

    Gen Panag is right when he holds the Government responsible for the intelligence failure, inability to secure the area and lack of preparation. Most of the mutually agreed ground level SOPs with China may not be even working.

    The Government will never tell the truth about the loss of territory because it has a vested interest. Nothing will change unless fundamental shifts are made in our priorities including the economy, military modernisation, administration, and public welfare.

    The pandemic has exposed the deep rot in the system. Muddling through is not an option.

    • Congress chamchas …..
      They don’t know even know what to talk , when to talk and how to talk. Just want to jump in everywhere like a monkey to blame BJP and RSS.

  50. China has to be made to understand to return Aksai Chin and all our territory occupied since 1960. Only then we will engage in better trade and ties. Our Jawans at front line need to be equipped with stealth taser technology guns so that the Chinese soldiers on the border can be incapicitated without bullets fired at them and any sound. Only then they will be fearful not to cross our borders again. This technology is called Hanuman Teer named after our Lord Sri Hanuman who helped Bhagwan Ram defeat that shaitan Ravan of Lanka.

    Jai Sri Hanuman

  51. “Last but not the least, once the status quo has been restored, we must hold the Narendra Modi government and the military accountable for the intelligence failure, the loss of territory, if any, that has taken place, and the asymmetry with respect to our capability vis-a vis China.”

    Why bring Modi into this? I am not a fan, but should things go south, the blame will lie with the intelligence services and armed force who did not have the common sense to reinforce construction workers with large armed force. The pseudo-patriots like to praise our army but are completely oblivious to our jawans being sent in with faulty equipment and ageing tech.

    Also, it must be added that China is intimidating India due to the latter’s election to the WHO Executive Chair, China does not want an investigation into COVID’s origins and is likely starting this up now as a bargaining tool.

  52. In all this Chinese incursion happenings time and again capturing much of what belongs to India and furthering up their new expansion of LAC, its the Indian dumbfounded politicians and armed forces, giving up on our country on the whole, what with a lethargic set of vote bank sitting around voting for all crooks that come their way….India as a country is doomed in short

  53. India should be a friend of China. America is not reliable, it plays double standards n helps Pakistan always . China is the only country to which Pakistan will adhere to not interfere in Kashmir. Pakistan also needs prosperity so China can convince Pakistan to make a economic deal with India. This is our only chance to survival in Asia. No America Yes China.

  54. China has attacked all financial capitals of world with covid and is staying secured,preparing for a war with any world Nations,if we loose a single square mile to China then we are lost forever,Threat of China should be ended NOW

  55. Our Army won’t give you that pleasure to hold out PM or Millitary accountable for anything. Keep your negativity to yourself.

  56. Why do Gen Offrs develop a pov after retirement and when not appointed as Gov or Ambassadors? Simply curious. They had the opportunity and the powers to transform but failed miserably, most of the times. No offence but a simple fact.

  57. No country has guts to attack China.
    So shamelessly China has spread virus
    all over the world world. Lakhs of people have
    died and economy of the world has slowed down. People without food ,jobs medicines.

    China is not feeling sorry ,it is not showing empathy or sympathy. Its in denial.
    Does not take ownership of wrong things.

    Worst then world war.
    After spreading Virus they may
    start other worst things like
    World war etc.
    They are atheist. Donot believe in God.

    So India wake up no peace talks, attack
    China take back AksaiChin and take back
    Pok, Gilgit areas it’s ours.
    Built as many bunkers and military bases near border area near Himalayas from Jammu Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.

    Jai Javan,Jai Kisan, Jai Vigyan.
    Jai Hind.

    • Come, take an inch of Azad Kashmir or GB if you can. It’s reality, not a bollywood fantasy film…

      • Hi! If you are a Pakistani, please remember one thing India as comprised of Present day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Remember we gave you the land to live. And what you speak is shameless. You people do not even know the history of your ancestors. Your ancestors were Buddhist, Jains or Sikhs before converting to Islam so stop barking. The country of yours that you call Pakistan has been donated to you to live by us Indians.

  58. Aksai Chin belongs to India. Indians need to take it back ,China has made bunkers and occupied at the boundaries of
    India like Ladakh , sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh,many more.
    Military should move them away or else Chinese may take away whole Ladakh .So
    Our Prime Minister should take back Pok
    and Aksai chin. Not allow China to take our
    Land .They are already attacking Taiwan , Hongkong, now India ,they are all hungry wolves.
    If peace talks does not happen ,attack them.

    • lol it’s easy said than done. You can dream of taking back Kashmir and Gilgit, let alone the Aksai Chin. You tried in February last year and got a really nasty lesson.

      • Only a matter of time! With a failing economy and a failure of centralised government run by a puppet PM, disintegration into four independent provinces is now a distinct possibility.

  59. Some disgruntled ex generals are pretty vocal after retirement but did nothing of note while serving. Gen Panag might be right in his analysis but as the ex GOC of northern command , it was his responsibility to strengthen our defenses. Just blaming the intelligence department everytime is becoming stale. For the readers, he was shunted from the important northern command to the low priority central command and nurses his grudges since then. Google his tweet asking for revolution post retirement.

  60. Very clear and forthright. Accountability is a must no matter what the outcome of the present situation.

  61. Lt Gen,your description has been professional,but your statement that Modi has to explain the lack of infrastructure along the border and the unprepared of the army is not.Systematically border road infra has been neglected for forty years and asper your reasoning the confrontation is because India is developing border road infra. Please be balanced in your criticism of a leadership that has woken up.My surmise is that Peking may now come forward to demarcate the LAC seeing the problems it is creating

  62. Am always skeptical of our claims of having satellites WITH HIGH DEFINITION CAMERAS. Why they always fail to deliver/ are found wanting. Starting from Andhra Pradesh CM helicopter loss, to Arunachal CM helicopter crash. Two CM loose their life and our so-called HIGH DEFINITION CAMERAS FAIL TO TRACE THEM So also many present cases.
    Is it failure of man or machine or both?

  63. All his mass of writing is to inform China our weakness and to weaken the present Indian government which has not given him any honorary post considering the awards he got during the Italian regime.

  64. Who is responsible for Chinese intrusion war and occupation of Ladakh Leh and Aksai Chin.IT was NOT narendra Modi oir BJP.

  65. Congress agents of retired army personals are active on Web Media like The Wire The Print and The Quint The Caravan.

  66. All countries should remain peaceful for the sake of humanity and attend to maintenance of ecological and environmental balance…. frankly borders are a minor issue in the face of health problems that threaten the lives of large numbers. Destruction is a presentable matter,construction can wait… please stay safe to be healthy. .

  67. Thanks to your deductions and conclusions….iam surprised thatvthe chinese ve not taken over india as yet…
    Im really surprised by your continuous ranting about the shortcomings regarding the govt and the defence forces…shortcomings will ALWAYS b there..but it seems…in the last 6 years the def forces and the govt ve always been shortcoming on everything…
    Sorry sir for such harsh language but retiremnt has not treated you well…

  68. General saheb, your articles are always a fantastic read, very insightful & vivid for the lay person to follow. I respect your ability very highly.
    However, your concluding remark was rather uncalled for.
    It would only be fair if it was acknowledged that our military capability asymmetry is-a vis China has grown mainly due to poor decisions taken from 1947 to 2013.

  69. Letus invite and well lookafter them. But they will occupy our precious land. No meaning of good friendship among the bordering countries who are not sharing many common things. So it is always better to be prepared to face any eventuality.

  70. Yea hold the Modi govt accountable for loosing territories that we didn’t even had any control on. But what about the territories that we did had control on and we did lose due to the utter incompetence and sore looser of a PM Nehru. There might have been some kinda intelligence failure this time too but this administration has been doing more to secure the borders what the 60 years of congress administration never even thought of. Building strategic infrastructure along the borders, is what those previous governments feared much, cause they didn’t want to irk the Chinese.

  71. Lt.gen,loss of territory ! Which territory. Can it be identified. When you don’t have marked territory, the adversary will continue to usurp.

  72. I think india is historically never been aggresive against any neighbouring countries. As far as as a indian citizens I feels my country should never occupy other’s area but same time should not leave inch owned by us.
    China has great history of culture innovation and well develped in almost all sectors but due to its negative nature of aggression it is losing status. Fortunately China has got every thing which needs for any country for development but same time got crucket minded administrators. China has done 1962 mistake where you created impression of traitor in friendship with india and continued repeatedly by creating troubles for india.

    • This shameful act “encroaching ” can be done only by indian extremists in kashmir and Nepal and jews terrorists in Palestine .

  73. ” India’s alignment with the US, the presence of Tibetan government-in-exile in India, and the aggressive claims on Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) and Gilgit Baltistan — through which the prestigious China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) passes — only strengthen China’s suspicion.”

    LMAO.. Barking dogs and dog-dreaming Hindus.

  74. “it was the failure of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) to detect the build-up of the PLA formations from the rear bases to replace the border defence units.”

    Your RA&W is only busy in sponsoring terrorism to Pakistan and Afghanistan.

  75. Author forgot to mention the changing geopolitical dynamics…………..Yesterday Trump offer of mediation is an absolute disaster for Modi & his Merry generals …………… this with Kargil where President Clinton personally threatened Pakistan PM Sharif with sanctions etc. in Blair house meeting on 4th July.

    Indian leadership under foolish assumptions of US support has challenged the Chinese dragon……….There may still be time to request for parleys !!!


  77. Good Analysis.
    But my thinking is they are preparing from last August .they are preparing to capture DBO and make indus river as LAC so they will achieve two goals .first taking control of siachen glacier and make direct link to Pakistan and complete securing Karakoram highway. Secondly secure indus river for Pakistan.

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