Tuesday, March 21, 2023
HomeIndiaAt 16,700 ft, on mud strip: IAF pilot on how his AN-32...

At 16,700 ft, on mud strip: IAF pilot on how his AN-32 reopened Daulat Beg Oldi after 43 yrs

Daulat Beg Oldi is adjacent to the Chip Chap river and lies 8 km south and 9 km west of the LAC with China, making it strategically important for India.

Text Size:

Daulat Beg Oldi is now in news and for all the wrong reasons. But why is it so important? I was lucky to have played a part in its activation in 2008.

Air Marshal Pranab Barbora, who had taken over the Western Air Command on 1 January 2008, decided to be at Chandigarh in February for his familiarisation visit. I was eagerly waiting for this opportunity as after taking over as Commanding Officer of the 48 Squadron flying the AN-32s, I had planned to propose a landing at Daulat Beg Oldi, an Advance Landing Ground close to Chinese border, east of Siachen, the highest airfield in the world.

I was doubtful of getting a positive response for two reasons. First. No one had attempted to undertake a landing at Oldi even after detailed studies and proposals in the last 43 years.  Second. Three committees headed by Air Vice Marshals had rejected the proposal and recommended that a landing should not be attempted. However, I thought, a re-presentation of the proposal was worth an attempt.

The D-Day arrived. Air Marshal Pranab Barbora came to the Squadron and I did a presentation on its activities: a routine briefing about its role, achievements etc. Then came the moment. I hesitantly, almost sheepishly asked for the Commander-in-Chief’s permission to present a new proposal. He agreed and the details were promptly flashed with a lot of enthusiasm regarding the operational necessities, the difficulties, the technical challenges of the task etc. The Squadron was surprised with his response; Barbora welcomed the proposal and immediately gave approval. I was told to present the details before the Western Air Command in the next two months, with greater emphasis on technical challenges.

Also read: Dates for phase 2 of military talks yet to be fixed, standoff goes on in Ladakh

The strategic importance

Daulat Beg Oldi is a small campsite, virtually at the base of the strategic Karakoram Pass. Travellers of yore on the famed Silk Route would have rested at DBO on their long journeys to Constantinople from China. Being at the base of the Karakoram Pass, this place has immense strategic implications, which is why the Indian Army has been at DBO since the late 1950s. DBO is adjacent to the Chip Chap river, lies 8 km south and 9 km west of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China. The air distance to the Karakoram Pass from DBO is just 10 km. Can there be a greater strategic location?

All around the DBO there is bleak landscape, with light brown earth, blinding white snow and azure blue skies, where “not a blade of grass grows” and is bereft of animals. All this at 16,700 ft, where winter temperatures can drop to -50ºC. The only people in this area are the indomitable officers and jawans of the Army and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police personnel who brave multiple adversities in the form of severe cold, utter loneliness, boredom, monotony, rarefied atmosphere, poor infrastructure, and communication.

Also read: India’s Fingers have come under Chinese boots. Denial won’t help us

Why it took over 40 years to land

Why didn’t we attempt a landing for almost half a decade if this place was so strategically important? There are many aspects which need consideration. First. DBO does not have a hard surface runway (bitumen/ concrete) and is a mud strip, which is compacted to provide strength to ground so that it can take the weight of the aircraft. Second and most important aspect is its elevation, which is 16,700 ft above mean sea level. There is no aircraft in the world that has the capability/capacity to land on such an airstrip while remaining within its engine and aircraft performance parameters.

Let’s understand this limitation. Engines require an ideal oxygen and fuel combination to perform at their best. With less oxygen, almost 40-45 per cent less compared to the sea level, one can’t switch off the engine to restart it. After landing at DBO engines have to be kept running. DBO is pretty much located in a bowl, surrounded by high-altitude mountains with average height of 20-22,000 ft. Manoeuvring an aircraft within this restricted place becomes difficult.

Also read: India must stay prepared as it watches China’s ‘not so peaceful’ rise

Laying the landing ground

The presentation sought by the Commander-in-Chief at the Command headquarters in Delhi was arranged, and I, as the proposer, was at the receiving end of many tough questions from the top brass. To my relief, I could convince them that no damage would be caused to the aircraft during landing due to the soft ground, and operations will be possible even though the aircraft was to be operated beyond certain limitations. The go-ahead was given considering its military operational requirement and my team returned to Chandigarh raring to go. Now started the preparations.

The Army was requested to prepare the airstrip by compacting the ground. Used engine oil and water was liberally sprayed (poured at places) to bind the soil and harden it and also to control the raising of dust during take-off and landing. The centre line was painted, not an easy task as it was to be on a mud surface. Jerry cans installed along the western edge of the strip and numbered as ‘Distance to Go Markers’ (DTGM), another makeshift arrangement, which helps a pilot to know how much of the runway is left ahead and can be used for landing roll. Those unaware of what it takes to just walk around at 16,700 ft, should marvel and applaud the capability of our soldiers and their officers to undertake such strenuous tasks at those heights. ‘Where nothing grows’, where oxygen is scarce, breathing is difficult, and hard labour is nearly impossible, it is the jawan who consistently achieves the impossible.

Also read: China believes India wants Aksai Chin back. PLA has likely secured 40-60 sq km in Ladakh

Choosing the machine

The AN-32 with the best performance in the Squadron was selected for the task. The operations were not possible within the OEM’s published performance graphs. Extrapolation of performance graphs revealed that the Weight Altitude Temperature (WAT) limitations and certain scheduled performance parameters for field length available at 16,700 ft altitude would be exceeded but wouldn’t jeopardise the flight safety. Since the Auxiliary Power Unit used for starting main engines would not perform above 14,000 ft, no switch off was possible; the main engines would be kept running on ground at DBO and fuel for that was to be factored.

Tyre pressure was reduced for soft soil conditions and the landing speed calculated was around 280 kmph, much higher than the usual speed of 200-220 kmph and higher than the max braking speed of 250 kmph permitted by the flight manual. A higher True Air Speed at altitude increased the radius of turn for the same bank angle and this added to the difficulty of manoeuvring the aircraft within available space. Since DBO’s airstrip was predominantly unprepared and kutcha, with a very small part having iron Perforated Steel Plates left over from the days when the American made Fairchild Packet aircraft landed in the 1960s, a bumpy landing followed by an equally bumpy takeoff was expected.


Also read: Stand-off with China in Ladakh is India’s worst border tension since Kargil in 1999

The flight

To add ‘Brass’ to the aircrew, we had on board Air Marshal Pranab Barbora himself as a passenger–of course he did not want to disturb the crew by being in the cockpit during this difficult mission, but he was sharing the risk of the sortie,  like a true leader would.  He was not going to sit in New Delhi while the action took place at DBO.

Our AN-32 got airborne early in the morning on 31 May 2008 at 0500 hrs, climbing into a grey-blue sky over Chandigarh, heading northward for the Himalayas.  Bright sunshine greeted us as we made our way past Tso Morari and Kar Tso, two prominent lakes before we crossed the Indus. We headed North and after crossing Leh and Khardung La entered Shyok Valley, passed the moraines of the Siachen Glacier and then entered the DBO bowl.  Sheet of clouds at about 20,000 ft hid most of the valley, but given the experience of the crew and their intimate knowledge of the geography of DBO, we descended below clouds and set up a circuit for left hand turns onto runway 01. The landing would be northward.

The readers will appreciate that an aircraft at circuit height in mountains appears frighteningly close to the obstructions below.  With landing gear extended, flaps down and mountain peaks well above it, we brought the aircraft on final approach for Runway 01 at DBO.  As calculated, the rate of descent was twice as that at Chandigarh, I knew that the first attempt had to be successful. On trial was the ‘izzat (honour)’ of not just my Squadron and me, but also of our Station and the Indian Air Force. Strategic value of routinely operating AN-32s from DBO was immense, and both militarily and diplomatically this trial landing was going to give a much-needed boost to our operational capability.  I was flying much more than just an AN-32 into DBO.

The aircraft roared over 01 dumb-bell at 280 kmph, throttles were chopped and at exactly 0614 hrs on 31 May 2008, history was created when this 27,000 kg medium-lift aircraft touched down at DBO, the highest airfield in the world. The landing run was pretty bumpy and the aircraft stopped well in time, even though braking was delayed. We turned around at dumb-bell 19 and stopped, keeping engines running as planned. Air Marshal Barbora disembarked and was met by Lt General Bhardwaj who had earlier landed at the airstrip in a helicopter; sweets were presented to the Army unit in appreciation of a most magnificent job done in preparation of the airstrip in such a short time, and at these heights.

Also read: Talks with China positive & will continue: Defence Minister Rajnath Singh

And the way back

After about 15 minutes it was time to take off. The aircraft was lined up on dumb-bell 19, full power opened (which generated just 65 per cent of sea-level torque) and brakes released; because of use of full engine power a huge cloud of dust churned up behind the aircraft as it lurched forward with a not too encouraging acceleration.

Air speed indicators in the cockpit register the aircraft velocity late at higher altitude but I desperately wanted speed to lift off. As the needle creeped to V2, the speed at which the nose is rotated, I gently eased the aircraft off DBO and immediately turned right to avoid the mountain in front, and climbed away towards home.

The 48 Squadron had done it by displaying indefatigable spirit, single minded purpose, and professional courage. And there was no prouder person than me, being its Commanding Officer. God has been kind, for the Squadron then got an opportunity to do similar path-breaking openings of the Fukche and Nyoma Advance Landing Grounds in Ladakh within the next year. Three Advance Landing Grounds operationalised in 17 months.

Stand by for their stories.

AVM Suryakant Chafekar was the Commanding Officer of the 48 Squadron and retired from the Indian Air Force in 2017. Views are personal.

Subscribe to our channels on YouTube & Telegram

Support Our Journalism

India needs fair, non-hyphenated and questioning journalism, packed with on-ground reporting. ThePrint – with exceptional reporters, columnists and editors – is doing just that.

Sustaining this needs support from wonderful readers like you.

Whether you live in India or overseas, you can take a paid subscription by clicking here.

Support Our Journalism


  1. My dad late airmarshal cks raje then sq leader did the first landing at DBO way back in 1962 it was same chinese problem same unprepared airstrip and the plane was a Fairchild Packet..specially modified by HAL . On his return take off there was unexpected load of injured jawans to be evacuated so it was touch and go…as the plane could not get sufficient lift in the rarefied thin air dad decided to go over the edge of the runway and dive into the valley below and that created the lift needed to fly out…its what you would see in movies but it worked and all subsequent landings he and others made at DBO used this dangerous but working tactic…that is the spirit of IAF

  2. CONGRATULATIONS to Our Airforce and Ground Staffs for Landing at DBO in such a inhospitable Condition and also the Commander of the AN32. We are always with You.

  3. Wow! That is indeed history in the making! And, yes it makes us proud, to have the best people in the military, air force and navy. Here I want add that having an airstrip at DBO is of the greatest strategic importance and a deterrent for those trying to sneak into our territory.

  4. My gratitude to the Indian Airforce and the ground team for this performance. My salute to the Airforce and the Army.

  5. Suryaknt,what aproud and satisfying moment it must have for you and the squadron boys. You once again proved that nothing is impossible for highly professional , competent and daring air crew of the I A F.
    Proud of you and your team.

  6. Kudos to you and the crew. Were you not the Captain of the An-32 which strayed into PoK ?Was Air Mshl Jimmy Bhatia on board? I understand you received a hit from a Stinger missile and recovered the aircraft.

  7. The indifatigable spirit and self-belief of a leader and the humility to stay grounded, appreciate the wider team and the enterprise to seek opportunities in challanges. Well done Commander ! The legacy continues.

  8. Sir,

    Two main takeaways for readers – (a) you conceived and proposed this plan and then (b) flew the aircraft yourself into DBO for this historic landing. Both of them require guts and exhibit finest examples of Military leadership – leading from the front.

    Ofcourse, we appreciate Air Mshl Barbora approving your plan – shows the TRUST he had in your leadership and professional skills. Another fine military trait.

    Wing Commander K Dinesh (Retd)

  9. Air Warriors in true spirit.!
    Magnificent job and inspiring leadership.
    Kudos to Jawans & other personnel who contributed for preparation of air field.

    U all are real HERO of INDIA !!
    We are proud of u Sir!

  10. Sir, really a great and your team and the army personnel are to be appreciated for making the airfield an usable one. Such acts of valor to be included in the syllabus of high school students.

  11. Interesting and warm write-up by AVM Suryakant Chafekar for trial landing of AN 32 on DBO on 31 May 2008 that every soldier must read who have served along Sino- Indian/ Indo-Pak borders. IAF piolets are thoroughly professional, daring courageous with unique sense to devotion to duty.

  12. Even a naive like me can co-relate the kind of experience needed to know the terrain and expertise to perform this critical operations . Hart’s of to IAF AND ITS TEAM.

  13. Congratulations Air Marshal. Your article is thrilling. It was an outstanding feat. Kudos to you and the squadron.

  14. I salute the IAF, the courage & spirit of the officers and the supporting staff. We feel proud of you sir. JAI HIND.

  15. I was an observer operater of Air OP Flt upto 1978,in 1971 flown with Major Agnihotri of 15 AOP Flt at Poolgaon near Dinajpur Bangladesh,then transferred to APS and in 1982 had chance work as Army Postmaster near siacion Glacier,where army mail transported through AOP flt to chongsaly,Fukchi for Tps .that time choper comporatbly used for mail, evacuation wounded soldiers to base then was tremendous job of AN 32 pilot landed there.well done. In 1970 when I undergone flying training at
    Nasik , flown with Capt AN Bharadwaj then he might be got Lt Gen promotion,so his direction also one of the success for landing flight there.I congrats all of good effort military men.

  16. The Indian Defence Services including the IAF are the best inn the world we can operate effectively and efficiently with minimal resources. Jai Hind

  17. Wow. I am feeling extremely proud of our defence forces. With a little political support they can achieve almost anything.Salute to our forces

  18. A superb & lucid memoir by the AVM in such minute details of the exceptional feat achieved 12 years ago. Thank you sir for having acknowledged the crucial contribution of the Sons of the Soil on ground to make it possible. They are still doing their bit to keep the ALG operational.

  19. Well written and was explained in detail for a layman.
    It must have been a challenging mission and Kudos to the entire squadron

  20. Reading this, I’m proud to have professionally known Suryakant Chafekar at a previous posting. He taught me, his NCC Gp Cdr, to fly microlights

  21. इस सराहनीय अनुभव को हम तक पहुंचाने के लिए धन्यवाद

  22. Salute to you, sir and to the IAF for taking up these arduous journeys in operationalizing the Advanced airstrips. The common man will understand from this article about the challenges faced by our brave soldiers in defending the nation from enemies…

  23. Great efforts taken and hats off sir. I was discharged from that wing in 2005 Jan. I was working in ATC.

  24. A moment of greatHonour to the Nation.I remember my thrilling flight in C119L packet aircraft for food drop in thoez area sitting in the cockpit monitoring the performance of engine through an ignition analyzer. Later Worked in An32.enjoyed flying to Machuka .Turtng.Ley and a technical crew member during1984-99.i could fabricate the centralised warning system of An32 at IBRD.and was awarded by the AOC.

  25. Delighted that 48 Sqadron achieved this feat flying an Antonov 29. I am not sure the Russians could have done it.

    We did not have the C-130 J in those days. Does the author think that this bird could land at Daulat Bin Oldi?


  27. AVM Suryakant Chafekar having been my boss just before both of us retired, had heard about his exploits first hand from him and had even seen the clip of his path-breaking and daring operations. And yet, I couldn’t resist reading it in one go the moment someone posted it to me. Tremendous initiative, grit, professional excellence and above all, leadership. It’s the stuff legends are made of. Happy Landings Sir, Always !

  28. The writer so modest about not claiming any credit though he initiated the proposal and actually piloted the aircraft. True leadership quality to give credit to others.

    • I entirely agree with you. Tremendous achievement on part of AVM Chafekar.

  29. Sir
    Thank you so much for sharing your first hand experience . You wrote in detail explaining all the technicalities & difficulties for comman person making it more realistic & increasing admiration of the task.
    We just read the news without details .This first hand write up has given a better view

    Thank you for this & we are grateful for your service to nation

Comments are closed.

Most Popular