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LTTE, JeM, ULFA – List of 42 terror outfits banned by MHA before Popular Front of India

ThePrint takes a look at outfits that have been outlawed by the government under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

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New Delhi: The Ministry of Home Affairs Wednesday banned the Popular Front of India (PFI) under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 (UAPA), making it the 43rd outfit to be outlawed in India under the stringent anti-terror act.

Ban on PFI came after two sets of  raids across the country. Around 100 people were arrested during the first raid and 270 in the second.

ThePrint takes a look at the 42 other ‘terrorist organisations’, listed in the first schedule of the UAPA. The  first schedule is the list of banned terrorist organisations under the UAPA, which is updated by the home ministry.

  1. Babbar Khalsa International (BKI)

The first unit of Babbar Khalsa International was founded in 1981 in Canada by the late Talwinder Singh Parmar. Working for the cause of an independent Sikh state – Khalistan – Wadhwa Singh, who is said to be hiding in Pakistan, heads the outfit,  according to the Institute of Conflict Management. In July, the Maharashtra anti-terror squad had arrested a man with links to Babbar Khalsa from a jail in Punjab.

  1. Khalistan Commando Force (KCF)

Formed in 1968, the Khalistan Commando Force (KCF) was founded by Manbir Singh Chaheru. The organisation was active in India during the militancy in Punjab between 1983 and 1986. KCF was weakened after the death of its leader, Labh Singh, in 1988. KCF is also accused of assassinating former Punjab chief minister Beant Singh. Pakistan-based Paramjit Singh is the current leader of KCF.

  1. Khalistan Zindabad Force (KZF)

Another organisation working for ‘Khalistan’, the Khalistan Zindabad Force (KZF) is headed by Ranjit Singh Neeta – originally a resident of Sumbal Camp area in Jammu. Multiple FIRs had been filed against Neeta after bomb blasts on trains and buses running between Jammu and Pathankot in Punjab between 1988 and 1999. India has demanded the return of Neeta from Pakistan. According to a 2008 report, “KZF is committed to joint action with Jammu and Kashmir terrorist groups,  notably the Hizbul Mujahideen.

  1. International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)

International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) was founded in 1984 – after Operation Blue Star – in the United Kingdom. ISYF was founded by Amrik Singh and Jasbir Singh Rode, a nephew of Jarnail Singh Bhinderanwale – a key figure during the peak of militancy in Punjab in the 1980s. The group is currently headed by another nephew of Bhindranwale, Lakhbir Singh Rode. A ISYF terrorist was allegedly involved in the Ludhiana court complex blast in 2021.

  1. Lashkar-e-Taiba/Pasban-E-Ahle Hadis

Pakistan based Lashkar-e-Taiba was founded in 1990. The organisation has been active in fueling militancy in Jammu & Kashmir. Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, head of the organisation, is a designated terrorist in India and is among the most-wanted in the country.

  1. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)/Tahrik-E-Furqan

A relatively younger organisation, Jaish-e-Mohammed was founded in January 2000. Jaish is active in Jammu & Kashmir and is controlled by Pakistan. Involved in the 2001 Parliament attacks and the 2016 attack on the Indian Air Force base in Pathankot, the group is headed by Masood Azhar.

  1. Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM) or Harkat-ul-Ansar or Harkat-ul-Jihad-e-Islami or Ansar-Ul-Ummah (AUU) 

Pakistan based Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM) was originally formed in 1985, to participate in the ‘jihad’ against Soviet forces in Afghanistan. The outfit eventually turned its attention to Jammu & Kashmir after the withdrawal of Soviet troops in Afghanistan.

  1. Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM)/ Hizb-ul-Mujahideen Pir Panjal Regiment

Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM) is the one of the largest terrorist outfits in Jammu and Kashmir. It was founded during the peak of militancy in the valley in 1989. Syed Salahuddin and Hilal Ahmed Mir further split Hizbul in the 1990s with their respective factions. HM stands for the integration of J&K with Pakistan and Islamisation of Kashmir.

  1. Al-Umar-Mujahideen

Al-Umar-Mujahideen was formed in December of 1989, during the peak of militancy in J&K. The Kashmir-based outfit is headed by Mushtaq Ahmad Zargar alias Latram. Zargar was designated as a terrorist by the Indian government in April. Zargar was one of the three terrorists released on 31 December, 1999 after hijacking of aircraft IC 814.

  1. Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF)

Pakistan-based Bilal Ahmad Beig leads the Jammu & Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF). JKIF was responsible for the blast that took place in Delhi’s Lajpat Nagar market in 1996. Reports suggest that JKIF has lately shown signs of recovery in the Valley. 

  1. United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) 

The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) was formed in April 1979 by Bhimakanta Buragohain, Rajiv Rajkonwar, Golap Baruah, Samiran Gogoi, Bhadreshwar Gohain and Paresh Baruah with a target to establish a “sovereign socialist Assam” through an armed struggle. The organisation is still active in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar.

  1. National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) 

The National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) was formed in 1986 in Assam by Ranjan Daimary. It was initially known as the Bodo Security Force. NDFB aims to form a Bodoland. Bodos are the single largest tribal community in Assam.

Also read: What is PFI, how it’s ‘linked’ to banned terror outfit SIMI & why it’s on every agency’s hit list

  1. People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

Established by N. Bisheswar Singh in September 1978, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) was an organisation that aimed to liberate Manipur. Claiming to be a trans-tribal organisation, PLA has a political wing in Revolutionary People’s Front (RPF) since 1989. RPF runs a government in exile in Bangladesh, with Irengbam Chaoren as its president.

  1. United National Liberation Front (UNLF)

Aiming to form an independent socialist Manipur, United National Liberation Front (UNLF) was founded in November 1964 by Areambam Samrendra Singh. However the “armed struggle” of the organisation was launched in 1990 and its armed wing, Manipur People’s Army, was formed.

  1. People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK)

The People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed under the leadership of R.K. Tulachandra in October 1977. PREPAK’s primary demand is “expulsion” of outsiders from Manipur. In January, the outfit claimed responsibility for an IED blast in Thoubal district, killing one Assam Rifles jawan.

  1. Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP)

Led by Y. Ibohanbi, the Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP) was formed in April 1980. KCP is concerned about the preservation of Meitei culture (an ethnic group native to Manipur) and demands to restore the erstwhile kingdom of Manipur.

  1. Kanglei Yaol Kanba Lup (KYKL)

Kanglei Yaol Kanna Lup (KYKL) is a Manipur-based group formed in January 1994, following the merger of three different breakout factions of the UNLF, PREPAK and KCP. The objective of this group is to ‘rebuild’ Manipuri society by getting rid of ‘immoral activities, drug trade and corruption’.

  1. Manipur People’s Liberation Front (MPLF)

The Manipur People’s Liberation Front (MPLF) is another Meitei extremist organisation with a demand for a separate Manipur state. MPLF has three constituent organisations, including the PLA, UNLF and the PREPAK.

  1. All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF)

The All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF) was formed in 1990, then known as All Tripura Tribal Force. In April 1994, in a major jolt to the outfit 1,600 cadres had surrendered under the Centre’s amnesty scheme. However, the organisation was revived by a group of people who did not surrender at the time.

  1. National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT)

The National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT),  aiming to form an independent Tripura, was formed in March 1989. Dhananjoy Reang was its ‘chairman’. However, Reang was expelled from NLFT and formed his own organisationthe Tripura Resurrection Army, before surrendering. The outfit has been marred by various splits over the years.

  1. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

At the forefront of the Sri Lankan civil war, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) was founded by Velupillai Prabhakaran in the 1970s. The organisation wanted to form its own state for minority Tamils in northeastern Sri Lanka. The group was defeated by the Sri Lankan military in 2009 after an all-out war. LTTE was responsible for the assassinations of former Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and former Sri Lankan president Ranasinghe Premadasa.

  1. Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI)

Formed in April 1977, the Student Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) is an extremist organisation, propagating ‘liberation of India’ by converting it into an Islamic land. Mohammad Ahmadullah Siddiqi, professor of Journalism and Public Relations at the Western Illinois University in Illinois, was the founding president of the organisation. SIMI was originally a student wing of Jamaat-e-Islami Hind.

  1. Deendar Anjuman

The Deendar Anjuman sect was formed in Karnataka in 1924 by Hazrat Moulana Deendar Channabasaveshwara Siddiqui. The group came into prominence after 13 explosions took place at various places of worship across Andhra Pradesh, Goa and Karnataka in 2000. Siddiqui’s son Syed Zia-ul-Hassan was alleged to have masterminded these blasts. He is reported to have migrated to Pakistan after the Partition.

  1. Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) — People’s War, all its formations and front organisations

Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI M-L) was formed in Andhra Pradesh on 22 April, 1980 by Kondapalli Seetharamaiah, an influential Naxalite leader. However, Seetharamaiah was later expelled from the group. Following the ideology of Chinese leader Mao Tse Tung, the group’s objective was to install a “people’s government” through the “people’s war”.

  1. Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), all its formations and front Organisations

Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) was formed as Dakshin Desh in 1969. Dakshin Desh was the only Left-wing extremist group that did not join the merger of Left parties into CPI M-L, the same year. With presence in Bihar and Jharkhand, MCC also traces its ideology to the Chinese Communist leader Mao Tse Tung’s dictum of organised peasant insurrection.

  1. Al Badr

Formed in 1988, Al Badr is a separatist organisation in J&K with an aim to strengthen Kashmiri freedom struggle and ‘liberate’ Kashmir. During the time of its formation, Al Badr was led by Lukmaan, a resident of Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir (PoK).

Also read: ‘Waited long years for justice’: Indian victims of terrorism recount their ordeal & its aftermath

  1. Jamiat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM)

The Jamiat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM) was the first breakaway faction of the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM) that emerged from personality clashes in 1990. Sheikh Abdul Basit was the separatist organisation’s head at the time.

  1. al-Qaida/al-Qaida in Indian Sub-continent (AQIS) and all its manifestations

al-Qaida, one of the most prominent terror outfits around the world, was founded by Osama bin Laden in the 1980s. Responsible for the 9/11 twin tower demolition in the US, al-Qaida formed its Indian sub-continent wing (AQIS) in September 2014.

  1. Dukhtaran-e-Millat (DEM)

A rare all-woman outfit, Dukhtaran-e-Millat (DeM) uses extra-legal means, including threats to impose its doctrines, but has not taken to arms so far. Formed in 1987, DEM has claimed that the Kashmir issue is primarily a religious issue and jihad is mandatory, while supporting the accession of the Kashmir Valley with Pakistan. Members of DEM are suspected to act as couriers of arms and funds for various terrorist outfits operating in the state.

  1. Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA)

At a time when a significant number of separatist groups emerged in Tamil Nadu in the 1980s, Tamil Nadu Liberation Army (TNLA) became active. The TNLA believes that independence of Tamil Nadu is essential for the betterment of the people and that an armed struggle is necessary for the same.

  1. Tamil National Retrieval Troops (TNRT)

Another separatist group from the southernmost state of the country, the Tamil National Retrieval Troops (TNRT) is believed to be functioning since the late 1980s. It was founded by Ravi alias P. Ravichandran, who was sentenced for life in October 1999 in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case.

  1. Akhil Bharat Nepali Ekta Samaj (ABNES)

Akhil Bharat Nepali Ekta Samaj (ABNES) was originally founded in 1979 Varanasi to work for the unity and welfare of the Nepalese community in India. Gradually, however, it evolved into a front organisation for the Maoist insurgents of Nepal.

  1. All organisations listed in the schedule to the UN Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism (Implementation of Security Council Resolutions) Order, 2007 made under section 2 of the United Nations (Security Council) Act, 1947 and amended from time to time. 

  2. Communist Party of India (Maoist), all its formations & front organisations

In 2004, the MCC, CPI M-L & People’s War merged to form the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist). The merger was done to cause “fear among the ruling classes” and to fulfil “the aspirations of the masses” to usher in a “new democratic society” by advancing towards socialism and communism.

  1. Indian Mujahideen (IM), all its formations and front organisations

India-based terrorist group with significant links to Pakistan, the Indian Mujahideen (IM) has conducted bomb attacks throughout India since 2005. IM’s stated objective is to carry out terrorist actions against non-Muslims in furtherance of its ultimate objective – an Islamic caliphate across South Asia.

  1. Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA), all its formations and front organisations

Formed by a former deputy superintendent of police (DSP), Meghalaya, Pakchara R. Sangma alias Champion R. Sangma in 2009, Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA) fights for a “sovereign Garoland” in the western regions of Meghalaya. The Garos are the second largest tribe in Meghalaya.

  1. Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO), all its formations and front organisations

Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) came into existence in December 1995. KLO aims to form a separate Kamtapur State comprising six districts in West Bengal–– Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North and South Dinajpur and Malda –– and the four contiguous districts of Assam –– Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Dhubri and Goalpara.

  1. Islamic State (IS)/Islamic State of Iraq and Levant/Islamic State of Iraq and Syria/Daish/Islamic State in Khorasan Province (ISKP)/ISIS Wilayat Khorasan/Islamic State of Iraq and the Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K) and all its manifestations

One of the most prominent active terrorist organisations, Islamic State or ISIS emerged as an offshoot of al-Qaida in 2014. It was founded by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, once the most wanted terrorist in the world. IS has grown into various wings in different regions over the years.

  1. National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) [NSCN(K)], all its formations and front organisations

The National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Khaplang (NSCN-K) was formed in April 1988 after a split in NSCN, due to divisions among the Nagas. The Konyaks (Naga ethnic group) formed NSCN-K with an objective of establishing a ‘greater Nagaland’ comprising the Naga dominated areas of India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.

  1. Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) and all its manifestations

The Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) came into existence in 1986 with the objective of establishing an independent ‘Khalistan’ from India “through violent means”. The organisation was banned in 2018.

  1. Tehreek-ul-Mujahideen (TuM) and all its manifestations

Banned in February 2019, Tehreek-ul-Mujahideen (TuM) was formed in June 1990 by Yunus Khan. TuM aims to merge J&K with Pakistan and also promote a pan-Islamist identity. During the early days of the outfit, the protection of the Asidih community, a small faction of Sunni Muslims, was a prime motivating factor.

  1. Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen India or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Hindustan and all its manifestations

The Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) is reported to have been formed in 1998 in Bangladesh’s Jamalpur. JMB aims at establishing the rule of Islam in Bangladesh through an armed struggle. The outfit is opposed to democracy and it calls for the conduct of government under the Islamic law.

Also read: India saw 181 terror attacks in 2021, 113 from ‘jihadi terrorists’ shows NCRB data

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