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How ‘Vikas Purush’ Nitish Kumar favoured fellow Kurmis in Bihar administration and politics

Kurmis make up just 2% of Bihar’s population, but members of the caste wield a lot of influence on Nitish Kumar’s administration and in his JD(U).

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Patna: For Nitish Kumar, 1994 was a watershed year as a politician. That was the year he held the Kurmi Chetna Maha-rally at the historic Gandhi Maidan in Patna.

At the time, Nitish, part of Lalu Yadav’s camp in the Janata Dal, was among the few politicians who were reluctant to speak about their caste, when others around him were flaunting theirs. The huge crowd was chanting ‘Garv se kaho hum Kurmi hain’ (say it with pride, I am a Kurmi), and yet, Nitish did not utter a word on caste.

But that was the moment he became recognised as leader of the Kurmis, a caste that comes under the OBC category. Kurmis make up just 2 per cent of the population of Bihar, and live mostly in and around the Nalanda district.

Twenty-six years after that Gandhi Maidan rally, Nitish is now being accused of favouring Kurmis in both political and administrative appointments by Lalu’s son and Rashtriya Janata Dal’s de facto leader Tejashwi Yadav.

Also read: Nitish Kumar is not a ‘vikas purush’ in Bihar 2020, but Tejashwi remains an asset for him

How the maha-rally shaped Nitish’s political career

Leaders at the 1994 maha-rally strongly advocated “Luv-Kush” unity in Bihar, referring to Rama and Sita’s twin sons in the epic Ramayana — Luv stood for Kurmis and Kush stood for Kushwahas, another OBC caste that accounts for 6 per cent of Bihar’s population.

The maha-rally was the first indication that the backward caste unity under Lalu was breaking — the tone and tenor was definitely anti-Lalu. A Kurmi Janata Dal MLA spoke in praise of Lalu, and was heckled by the crowd and forced off stage.

There were appeals from leaders to have a ‘rotibeti’ (meaning exchanging food and inter-marrying) relationship between Kurmis and Kushwahas. Even 26 years on, Nitish is still regarded as the ‘Luv-Kush’ leader, despite the emergence of Kushwaha leaders like Rashtriya Lok Samta Party founder Upendra Kushwaha.

During the Lalu-Rabri regime, non-Yadav OBCs, extremely backward classes (EBCs) as well as upper castes faced the dominance of Yadavs, both politically and socially. Lalu’s party had over 60 MLAs belonging to his own caste.

So, Nitish became an acceptable alternative face to Lalu, because he belonged to a caste that was too small and too limited to one area to dominate society, unlike the Yadavs, who make up 14 per cent of the population of Bihar.

Also read: Indian voters are ready to go beyond caste, some politicians are not

Kurmi ‘dominance’ in administration

In the Lalu-Rabri era, the IAS and IPS cadres in Bihar were also divided on the lines of backward and forward castes. Mukund Prasad was the most powerful IAS officer in the regime, and most upper caste officials were shunted out to insignificant posts.

When Nitish first came to power, he did not elevate the late K.D. Sinha — an upright senior IAS officer from the Kurmi caste — to the post of chief secretary. The buzz was that since Ashish Ranjan Sinha, also a Kurmi, was the director general of police at the time, making K.D. Sinha the chief secretary would send the wrong message.

However, later, Kurmi IAS officers from outside Bihar, such as Jitendra Kumar Sinha (Manipur-Tripura cadre), and Sanjay Singh and Manish Verma (Odisha cadre) were brought in and given the prized post of Patna district magistrate. Current Patna DM Kumar Ravi also belongs to the Kurmi caste.

RJD leader Abdul Bari Siddiqui remarked inside the assembly that Nitish only relied on “royal blood” from outside the state, a charge Nitish furiously rejected.

At the Chief Minister’s Office level, R.C.P. Singh, a UP cadre IAS officer was brought in and made Nitish’s principal secretary. A Kurmi hailing from Nalanda, Singh quit in 2010 and was made Rajya Sabha MP.

Even currently at the CMO, two Kurmi IAS officers Manish Verma and Anupam Kumar call the shots as secretaries, along with non-Kurmi principal secretary Chanchal Kumar.

ThePrint reached the secretaries via phone calls for a comment but there was no response until the time of publishing this report.

Speaking to ThePrint, former Bihar chief secretary V.K. Dubey said: “Caste has always played a role, right from the days of Bihar’s first chief minister S.K. Sinha, when half the doctors in medical colleges belonged to his caste (Bhumihars). Successive CMs like K.B. Sahay (Kayastha) and Jagannath Mishra (Brahmin) promoted officers of their castes.”

Dubey added: “But there is a technical limitation: How many IAS and IPS officers of your caste can you promote in a state having 250 IAS officers? As far as recruitments are concerned, it is impossible for Kurmis specifically to get recruited because in an interview, apart from the name and roll number, the interviewer knows nothing (Kurmis have surnames common to other castes). But manipulation can be done in class III and class IV services like nurses and police constables.”

On the political side, though Nitish has never made a person from his caste the president of the state JD(U), the dominance of the aforementioned R.C.P. Singh is unmistakable. In recent e-rallies, he spoke just before Nitish, leaving senior leaders like Lallan Singh and Bijendra Prasad Yadav to play second fiddle. Singh’s dominance was reported to be one of the factors why election strategist Prashant Kishor, who was JD(U) vice-president, left the party.

Attempts to contact R.C.P. Singh for his comments were unsuccessful as of the two numbers listed on his Rajya Sabha profile, one was switched off while another “does not exist”.

A low-profile MLC, Sanjay Gandhi, a Kurmi from Nalanda, is said to wield influence over all ministers because of his proximity to Nitish. Bihar’s Parliamentary Affairs Minister Shrawan Kumar, also a Kurmi, is known as Nitish’s hatchet-man.

Also read: To tweak OBC creamy layer or not. A Modi govt decision that can cost BJP the Bihar election

Focus on Nalanda

Nalanda district adjoins Patna, and is dominated by Kurmis. It is Nitish’s stronghold, but he used to leave the seat for his senior colleague George Fernandes for an easy passage to the Lok Sabha.

But since the JD(U) came to power in 2005, there has been a sea-change in Nalanda—infrastructure that has come up or is under construction includes a medical college, police training institute, the modern Nalanda University, IT city, an international  cricket stadium, a world-class conference hall and a rifle-firing range.

All this has earned Nitish the tag he wanted to avoid initially — leader of the Kurmis in Bihar.

Opinion divided

Shivanand Tiwari, national vice-president of the RJD, was in the Janata Dal with Nitish Kumar in 1994 and was among the founder members of the Samata Party alongside him. Since then, he has gone back and forth between Nitish and Lalu, and criticised the CM for “favouring” Kurmis.

“The perception that Nitish Kumar was above caste is a public perception created by him for political advantage. I went with Nitish to Kurmi Chetna Maharally. We were at Lalu’s house before we went to the rally. Lalu did not want Nitish to go, but Nitish went,” Tiwari said.

“Nitish did not promote strong and honest Kurmi officials like K.D. Sinha. He wants docile officials from the caste. Even in politics, he ousted a Kurmi leader like the late P.K. Sinha because he openly disagreed with him. There is nothing to say about how he brought Kurmi officials from outside the state and gave them key posts,” he said.

However, Rajni Ranjan Patel, spokesperson of Nitish’s ally BJP and a Nalanda resident who was among the main organisers of the 1994 Maha-rally, disagreed.

“Nitish Kumar has never indulged in caste politics. During his tenure, the two sections he has done the most for are the EBCs and Dalits. He has taken the state away from caste politics to development for all, and his community has never indulged in the sort of social dominance which Laluji’s community did. Nitish has not saved any criminal from any caste or community,” Patel said.

“Deputation of officials to Bihar from other states has been happening before Nitish Kumar came to power. R.C.P. Singh was with Nitish Kumar when he was Union railway minister. I would like to remind those who allege that Nitish promotes Kurmi officials that one of the first IAS officers to be targeted under Nitish Kumar regime for corruption was S.S. Verma (now retired), also a Kurmi,” he added.

Also read: Modi-Shah rely on weakened Nitish Kumar: Risk averse BJP or no better option in Bihar?


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  1. The mindset of this Brahman Modi media is pathetic…. he either doesn’t possess knowledge about the kurmi caste or he is just too jealous…. kurmis are over 10% in Bihar if we include thé EBC subcaste of kurmi i.e dhanukh or mandal.
    And koeri is easily 8% so this is the base vote bank of JDU and Nitish kumar. And as far as favourism is concerned he has done even 10% for his caste of what other sawarn CMs did in their period

    • Actually the author is partly right about the low population of kurmis , kurmi population is indeed low but more like 3%-4%. Dhanuks are not kurmis , it’s just because the population of kurmi is quite low, some folks have tried to include dhanuks within kurmi fold to bolster their numbers. It’s like the case of bhumihars who call themselves brahmins but the brahmins don’t really consider them as their own .
      And i thought that Mandal is just a surname, it’s used by many castes including Ahirs/Yadavs. B.P Mandal of Mandal commission was an Ahir/Yadav.

  2. Castiest Mishra just trying to defame an OBC leader. Can you not see dominance of so called upper caste in Bihar, just trying to mislead people

  3. Just jealous to uplift of backward caste and Easily ignored domination of so called upper caste in Bihar

  4. The Print

    We didn’t thought such wrong data from your side.
    Next time we careful about Nitish Kumar, who have no black spot at their image.
    Ban such journalist who give wrong data for the profit of their own Aaka political.
    Vikas Gangwar

  5. Mishra Shame On You ,Brahmin Terrorist.
    Kurmis and Yadavs are politically against each other ,but we both are OBC’s ,So Whenever a Brahmin Like you try to tarnish backward caste leaders image

  6. किसने जनगणना की है कि कुर्मी की जनसंख्या दो प्रतिशत है ? चुनाव देखते ही बकवास शुरू।दिमागी खुन्नस के शिकार मिश्रा जी

  7. Mishraji (author) got his facts all wrong. But if researches about brahmin in bihar they are about 4% and key post even now. Article is written from a political malicious biased narrative.

  8. The print first of all correct your fact that kurmis are near about 6℅ in bihar and nitish kumar is not caste favouring goon . And your report is intentionally biased to target
    Assembly poll , you have no agenda on development whatever nitish have done in a state like bihar can’t be comparable . Don’t be so panic nitish is going forward with bihar to take oath for fourth term cm in 2020

  9. Weather knowingly or unknowingly keeping Satish kumar ( then an M.L.A. from Ashthawan) away from even one mention in the description is astounding.

  10. Totally biased upper caste perceptions.
    They will not talk about Brahmin Terrorism.
    Jealous of Backwards upliftment.

  11. What a biased story!! What can anyone expect from general caste dominant media and that too brahmins. It’s clearly showing in this report. That’s the reason why Yadav goons are good in balancing the terms with them.

  12. Such a biased reporting can be in the gene of only brahmins. From where he got the figure of Kurmis being only 2% instead of 10% plus of Bihar’s population? Why does not he demands caste based census which will show him the real ficture that it is the Brahmins who are 2% now instead of even 3%.

    • Such an awful writing. The writer is ridden with political sickness. He has deliberately missed out the actual IAS and IPS officers Nitish brought in and has always preferred and caste isn’t a factor in their promotions.

      IAS : Deepak Kumar, Anjani Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Pratyay Amrit, Anand Kishore and Sanjay Agarwal

      IPS : Manu Maharaj and Garima Kumar

      This article is prejudice, shows the amount of cliché and xenophobia The Print carries for Bihar and how critical they are about upliftment of lower castes. The Print is terrible and pathetic.

  13. Looks like someone is feeling that Brahmins who are roughly at 5% of the population of India but occupy 50% of the most influential posts are not happy about the rise of OBCs, SCs and STs. Such selective and misleading post by ThePrint is shameful.

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