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Why highly placed Muslims became ‘Krishna bhaktas’ in the Mughal period

In ‘Voices of Dissent’, Romila Thapar writes that Rajput-Mughal joint patronage helped make Vrindavan the focus of Krishna bhakti.

Romila Thapar
File photo | Govind Dev temple, Vrindavan | ThePrint
File photo | Govind Dev temple, Vrindavan | ThePrint

An obvious question is: why did highly placed Muslims, and not inconsequential ones at that, turn their creativity towards Krishna bhakti? Modern historians have called them Muslim Vaishnavas, but they did not call themselves that. They called themselves Krishna bhaktas. Their intention pointed to their identity and possibly reflected far more than religious devotion. It was a cultural indicator of a substantial kind, yet we hardly give it attention. This can be partly explained by the narrowness of the contemporary definition of Indian culture that excludes those aspects that bring in the wider assenting and dissenting dimensions that are inevitable in the creation of any expansive culture.

We often forget that cultures evolve from the interface of many strands in the life of communities and reflect a mixture of many patterns. No culture is singular in its origins. culture assumes a form once the strands are well integrated. We overlook the fact that the Mughal–Rajput alliances had many dimensions apart from the overtly political. For instance, the Kachvaha rajputs of Amber claiming high status as Suryavamsha kshatriyas gave their daughters to the Mughal ruling family who were thought of as turushkas. This contributed to a rajput presence and practices in the Mughal royal family. These would have been viewed by the Muslim orthodoxy as acts of defiance by the non-Muslim, and on other grounds disapproved of by orthodox brahmanas.

The patronage of the Govind Dev temple at Vrindavan with its unusual Indo-Persian architecture strikingly different from the other enormous temples constructed in this period reflected the mixture of rajput and Mughal. This joint patronage doubtless helped to enliven Vrindavan as the focus of Krishna bhakti. This was more than a matter of marriage alliances. It was also making a statement about finding a new identity, giving it form and imbuing it with legitimacy, not to mention its political ramifications. where Krishna bhakti is linked to the patronage of the Kachvahas and the Mughals, there it touches the political culture of both and its activities acquire yet another dimension. Does dissent gradually give way to accommodation when the latter is thought to be politically more expedient?


Also read: Little-known fact: Aurangzeb had more Rajput administrators than Akbar


Puranic Hinduism was now at one level inducting some local dimensions of bhakti and therefore incorporating regional cults that sometimes became sects at other levels. examples of this could be Jagannath in Odisha, said to have had beginnings in tribal worship in the area; Vitthala in Maharashtra, thought to have grown out of the worship of a hero-stone; Hinglajmata in Sind, which has been and is of special importance to nomadic pastoralists and traders; Bonbibi the forest goddess in the Sundarbans, and so on.

To turn to another situation of those times, namely, the view that the Muslim was always the other and qualified by his religion—Islam. Even a preliminary look at the sources indicates that within the structures of Indian society at the time, that which can be labelled as consent or dissent, accommodation or confrontation, are far more complicated matters than we have assumed. This is not a new feature but existed among well-defined communities as we have seen from earlier history. what is important is to recognize the transition towards consent or dissent of varying degree, and to ask what determines the direction.

We use the label of Muslim uniformly today for anything with a touch of Islam. It was used only occasionally in public discourse and then too with particular reference in earlier centuries. What we often overlook is that non-Muslims did not generally refer to Muslims by the single label of Muslim as we do today. In those days, references to them in Sanskrit and other languages were based on a different category of names such as yavanas or Shakas or turushkas. These labels were ethnic and not religious. They also link up interestingly with earlier history. Yavana was used for the Greeks and those who came from the west. So it was used for the Arabs and later for anyone regarded as foreign coming from the west, such as even Queen Victoria. The ancient Shakas were the Scythians from central Asia, the homeland also of the turushkas, the turks. So strong was the association of the turushkas with central Asia that Kalhana, writing in the eleventh century in his Rajatarangini, describes the Kushans coming from central Asia in the early first millennium AD as turushkas. These, therefore, were historically authentic names used for the Arabs, Afghans, turks and Mughals who came from these regions. It also suggests that they were viewed as descended from the earlier peoples as indeed some historically were. The labels of Hindu and Muslim as referring to those identified by uniform monolithic religions came later.

However, some turushkas on occasion are also referred to in Sanskrit sources as mlecchas, used either in a derogatory sense or as just a passing reference to difference. For example, in one Kakatiya inscription from the Deccan, in Sanskrit and telugu, the Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin tughlaq, after a successful campaign in the area, is described by the local defeated raja as a dreadful man who killed brahmanas, destroyed temples, looted farmers, confiscated the land granted to brahmanas, drank wine and ate beef. This was now to become the stereotypical description of a Muslim ruler whenever a negative projection was required. It carries an echo of the description of the kala yavanas / black yavanas of a millennium earlier in the Yuga Purana, when probably the Indo-Greeks were being referred to in an uncomplimentary manner.


Also read: Are communal riots a new thing in India? Yes, and it started with the British


The social distancing of the savarna and the avarna communities was immutable and continued even among those who had converted to Islam or those who had become Sikhs. Theoretically, these religions did not observe caste distinctions, but in effect there was a distancing between erstwhile upper and lower castes.

The exclusion of Dalits continued as conversion did not liberate them from caste. The lowest castes may have been equal to the upper castes in the eyes of Allah, but not in the eyes of the existing upper castes, irrespective of the religion they followed. There is a social message of dissent from the formal social codes in the teachings of the bhaktas from the lower castes and avarnas, which we should listen to.

The Krishna bhaktas who were born Muslim were viewed as the other by two categories of Selves. The qazis and mullahs of orthodox Islam strongly disapproved of them as did orthodox brahmanas. On occasion, the qazi tried to win back the bhakta by resorting to negotiation but this rarely succeeded. It continued until it became helpful to the formal religions to incorporate some of these teachings. Therefore, both the other and the Self have to be carefully defined each time either is referred to in different historical contexts. This might be a necessary exercise in clarifying identities, and more so where there is an overlap.

This excerpt from Voices of Dissent: An Essay by Romila Thapar has been published with permission from Seagull Books.

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115 COMMENTS

  1. Madan Romila thapar, you have mentioned total nonsense in this article. These stories are far away from facts. Muslims have never patronise the vrindvan or Krishna bhakti. The diety ( archa vigrah/ Murti) of Radha Govind Dev temple had to be shifted to Jaipur due to attack and atrocities of Muslims. You can go and have darshan of sri Radha Govind dev at Jaipur now as well. Radha Govind Dev teme was a 5 story temple which was reduced to single story by mughals. Similarly 3 other principle dieties / murtis had to shifted to Jaipur which are still in Jaipur. These Radha gopinathjee , Radha vinodilalajee and Radha damodar jee. Don’t misguide . Anyways nobody except leftist believes you.

    • Not 5 story it is 7 story temple , rest facts are true given by you, The writer is high on weed showing Aurangzeb as friendly creature but writing such nonsense will not change our thoughts about them. Better to teach
      these cheap and falsity to your family Mr. Editor .
      Writer must check his DNA i thing Akbar Chromosomes are there.

  2. In one para it is described the creativity.muslims and creativity are miss-match words.they created either in leisure (from Indian money)or for conversion.

  3. We are still waiting for the names of the highly placed consequential muslims who became Krishna bhakts.

  4. Romila you have manage to decive the hindu’s in the past ,kindly dont try doing it again,you cannot fool us every time.your SICK LEFTIST MINDSET has done enough damage.KINDLY DO SOME SOUL SEARCHING AND STOP YOU MADRASSA PAID WRITINGS !!!ENOUGH IS ENOUGH !!!

  5. Non sense article to hide the atrocities of Islam on Hindus and also try to show them as seculars. Islamic rule was never secular. Islamic rulers always killed Kafir Hindus, raped Kafir ladies and filled their Hareems with Kafir ladies, whenever they wanted and forcibly converted Hindus. They brought slavery system in India and sold Hindus to Turk and Arabic rulers as slaves. It also looted and vandalized temples, demolished Idols in the temples throughout Islamic rule.
    Islam also placed Biased Jizia tax on Hindus, additional land tax on Kafir Hindus. Why didn’t they mention any of those atrocities?.

  6. Romila ji is a well known left historian so much brainwashed and has conditioned mind everything she looks at it from Red glass of marxism.Absolute no respect for Facts and objective analysis.
    Romila ji small piece of friendly advise.Over come your conditionings and see things with open mind and based on truth.
    A few claps missed from your left friends does not matter,in any case it was bloating your ego preventing you to be an authentic person.The moral strength you derive from being open minded and truthful is far more important.
    If you can do this we would have a great historian lest a brilliant mind wasted at Chinese feet.

  7. This writer and her colleagues have been brainwashed by corrupt history written by paid historians soon after Independance.
    Wrong persons were put in charge of Education Ministers and Indian history was distorted under the non believer PM Pandit Nehru. Chacha Ji had no clue about ancient India nor did he believe in Indian culture.
    JNU and sister intelegencia with adulterated mind bend and these historians have ruined our history. To top it all they have grabbed all top positions and do not allow others to get in to upset the apple cart.

  8. It cannot b ignored or hidden that Islam came to north side of India through invasion.But at the same time Islam came to South India more peacefully (arab trading,Cheraman Perumal).This means that not only religious communities have influenced things that happened in the past but also the people ,culture etc.This is also a hint for what is mentioned in this article.
    Swami Vivekananda has once in his speech given in Chicago had told that “Religion is not just tolerance but acceptance”.There is a very good difference between tolerance and acceptance.
    What makesHinduism special is that it supports both acceptance and tolerance when compared to other religions ,where the latter favours tolerance only.Hinduism allows plurality of thought.
    This means that we should leave the past behind.Revenge upon history is not logic.And plurality is not to be dissed.It’s against democracy.It’s against Hinduism.
    If we people of different religion continue to find differences between us and fight for what happened in the past, there is no scope for democracy.
    We should try to find the what is common between us.let’s discuss the differences after that.gghhhj

  9. It cannot b ignored or hidden that Islam came to north side of India through invasion.But at the same time Islam came to South India more peacefully (arab trading,Cheraman Perumal).This means that not only religious communities have influenced things that happened in the past but also the people ,culture etc.This is also a hint for what is mentioned in this article.
    Swami Vivekananda has once in his speech given in Chicago had told that “Religion is not just tolerance but acceptance”.There is a very good difference between tolerance and acceptance.
    What makesHinduism special is that it supports both acceptance and tolerance when compared to other religions ,where the latter favours tolerance only.Hinduism allows plurality of thought.
    This means that we should leave the past behind.Revenge upon history is not logic.And plurality is not to be dissed.It’s against democracy.It’s against Hinduism.
    If we people of different religion continue to find differences between us and fight for what happened in the past, there is no scope for democracy.
    We should try to find the what is common between us.let’s discuss the differences after that.

  10. Sinister design.
    The print, wire etc are Frontpage for such type of self claimed historians who spend all their intellectual prowess to distort & rewrite history according to their very long term agenda. They work on the philosophy that if a lie is told hundreds of times, it will become truth.

  11. And regarding inter-community marriages, Mughals just wanted to f beautiful ladies. There was no moral motivation behind it.

  12. Trash. It is Muslims who kill their own kin based on Sharia shitlaws. Illiterate author doesn’t know the status divisions among muslims. And dares to say that all are equal before allah. Another one from a bunch of garbage in the print.

  13. What a mentally retarded woman ! Kindly stop publishing articles when you’re so incapable. Any idiot can make speech now a days. You wasted my ten minutes. Picky lines, biased intentions and convenient approach is all I could read here. Stop bluffing people. This is India and you’re also going to be finished The Print as we won’t accept such media. Quit India retards before we insult you more and kick your ass.

  14. The print
    By letting you publish this article ( many of such kind) , India is setting up a goal for a perfect secular country.

    Imagine now of publishing such anti muslim articles( books by a very tolerant author Romila) in so called liberal “Islamic” countries. Do try this someday.

  15. Here is my crudest simplified interpretation –

    Muslims killed men but wanted to make women {whom they did not sold in slave markets} so that women may make it enjoyable for them in bed & thus they allowed them to practice existing belief system and to appropriate those beliefs for Islamic purpose.

    This is the gist of academic gibberish.

  16. Present day Muslims won’t agree.There are more Hindu historians, intellectuals, politicians in modern India who are ready to rewrite Islamic invassions, loot, plunder and rapes as visitations by saints from Saudi Arabia.Hindus should think more about present day Muslims are planning to do to present day Hindus.Terror attacks to cow slaughter to demographics to love jihad to Gazava e Hind have nothing to do with Islamic past in India.

  17. I still remember the wise words of padmabhushan Mr. Kk Muhammad, the then regional director of ASI, regarding the babari masjid excavation. Mrs. Romila Thapar claimed and reported in alsmost all press meets and articles that there were no temple’s below Baro Masjid, WITHOUT EVEN VISITING THE SITE ONCE. This is the credibility of this Great academic historian. So Mrs. Thapar and her clowns in The print, with due respect, please roll up this piece of crap and shove it up your bum.

  18. An aimless discourse by an aging distorian. What is she trying to say ? Did any Mughal give his daughter in marriage to a Rajput . It was a oneway flow and mughals objective in forcing these marriages upon Rajputs was to safeguard themselves

  19. Suck hypocrites! Shame to you! Even a layman understands you are trying to brainwash and spread fake news amongst us! You mean to say God allah sees everyone equally but Hindu gods don’t, how can you say this? Or compare ? Do you have any proofs supporting the fact? Krishna was born to a royal family but didn’t live with them and rather lived with ordinary people! And you say our god’s discriminated!! Shame on your journalism, you people are a threat to the country and we will try our best to report you every time I see any articles or news from you!

  20. Nice piece, I always wondered why don’t someone talk about it, because we know when someone is at peak,like in present days we dont say “Christian countries”, we say “western countries” or something else, so yes there were all kind of dynamics into the play

    But as always, comments are the one that lightens my mood, lol

  21. There is no homogeneous Hindu.It is caste caste caste. Then subcategories.It is not a unified society,mired in conflict.bickering,hatred,internecine fight .Hence those claim themselves as Hindus belong to so called higher caste. These groups suffer from false ego and expert in exhibiting their courage and valour towards the women and Dalits.

  22. Who were these alleged muslim krishan bhakts ? No name in article. Why ? because they never existed. Even if they existed, they would have been beheaded according to their “holy book”. Again this woke writer is peddling false narrative. Another attempt to prove that all high castes were bad and muslims were saviors of dalits. The truth is thses imported Middle Eastern muslims thought themselves superior than Native Indian Muslims. The native Indian Muslims were killed by these invaders. They never employed native Indian muslims in any jobs and never married amongst them. Everything was done among these foreign invaders only. The so called secular historians have whitewashed the genocide of not only Hindus, Sikhs , Jain’s but Indian muslims also. There was/ is no secularism is Is**m.

  23. All this may very well have been true, but for a long time, Congress and left/liberals have treated Muslims in India as a monolithic vote bank. Today’s right wing back lash is as much about this monolithic political entity as it is about historical violence and carnage.

  24. Indian interaction with Islam was not Just about Mughals as Romila the Historian makes it sound. That my be her focus but this kid of using a broad brush across to characterize the entire interaction is dishonest. Our interaction starts with Malik Kafur!!! Please tell us what he did. Let us look at Ghori,Ghaznavi, the Bahamani Kings. Even among Moghuls, Aurangzeb and the rest were terrible. Romila is losing here place…… this is her desparate attempt to paint a period in India’s history that was very very dark!!!!!!

    Rajputs converting to Islam and still continuing to believe in Krishna!!! That is not much evidence!!!!

  25. The article is a trash representing many untruths and improbables . Another attempts to cover up secularism, hoodwink pseudo intellectuals and waylay common people. Tell straight that they were oppressors of people, destroyer of hindu temples, resorted to forcible conversions, and married to Rajputs girls forcibly for their beauty to humiliate the community and instilling a sense of fear or sometimes for their harems.

  26. This is what the RSS means when it says all Indians are Hindus. Hinduism is the shared composite multicultural strand that the author talks about.

  27. Just assume, I am a Muslim and I am converting some Hindus by murdering, rapeing and looting them. After getting converted to Islam, some of them still fallow Vishnavism; does that makes Islam or Muslims great? What is that writer wants to convey? How come become Muslims great here?

  28. Shekhar Gupta asks for financial contribution to support his journalism. But he is well funded by Congies, with all the loots at their disposal. and he also gets money from Pakistan and Bangladesh to propagate their Islamic agenda, and illegal Muslims’ cause from Bangladesh. With so much money at their disposal, I wonder what Shekhar does with that money.

  29. Muslims should always be Muslims, and the rest should be secular. No wonder islamophobia is so strong in the world.

  30. I know Romila Thappar as much as he knows abouy Hindus, Mughals and their history. I dont know Romila Thapar.
    This article and her book presumably is just a well written effort to showcase the Tuglaks, ghaznis, mughals and all the muslim rulers as exceptionally tolerant to the local (read hindu) religion and culture. That they did not plunder, loot or destroy our temples, that they did not rape or enslave hindu women, but protected them. It was the ‘local hindus’ who did all this mischief to discredit the islamic rulers. Wah Thappar Wah!! History explained with such clarity (sic) , but you fail to understand the the Hindus today awake, alert and informed and can smell a rat easily..!!
    Dont expect much from the Print than some Hinduphobic article..

  31. How long will she be fooling Hindu nation by her chmerical fantasies of Islam being a benign religion and the Muslim invaders were truly compassionate and generous with native population. Her theses and fantastical e conclusions have done more damage to Indian national psyche than any organised movement. The marriage s that she showcases as Hindu Mughul syncretism were actually were no ritual marriage s at all .And the Rajput women were invariably sent into The Harem of Muslim Kings not as queens but as sex slaves . Their attitude was no different from the Isis of modren era. I spite of so many evidences and proof s og bigotry , genocide and cruelnrss this woman still in the age of information indulges in deception, duplicity and trickery to fool the Indian nation.

    • Are you stupid ? Jodha Bai was married to Akbar as a queen and even after the marriage with Akbar jodhabai becomes hidu lifetime,
      And also Akbar made a bhagwan shreeram temple in Agra fort for the jodha bai.check out that temple.
      And also jodhabai’s brother raja maan singh’s one queen named Bibi Mubarak.bibi Mubarak was the real niece of Akbar.

  32. Only in India kaul brahmin can be raol Vinci ..Vadra gandhi..But never a muslim adopt krishna or sundar or Dheep ,..names if they do Facts will come

  33. May be not during all Mughal emperor’s period. It’s only during the period of emperor Akbar as he tried to justify his marriage in rajputs. Akbar was the only emperor who was not in Islamic main stream or a full fledged practicing Muslim.

    • All mughals were invaders and equally cruel to Hindus, akbar was not exception. Mughals used to hate native Hindus and muslims as well based on their dark skin color. Then how akbar fascinated with dark skin rajput lady. It was not love, but was forced sex slavery for peace. Akbar was not great, but he was made great by paid sickular gangs.

  34. I pity historians like Romilla Thapar who purposely evade objectivity to construct structured narratives out of half truths and nebulous hints from the past. She has forgotten she is a historian, not a historical novelist. Perhaps she has missed her true calling. In any case what is out to prove?
    As for the Print, it has the right to publish what it chooses, but it must take care not to be overwhelmed by impressive reputations Indian or foreign.

  35. Wonder how many Krishan Bhagats were females (Gopis) from the ethnic Yavans, Mugals, Turushkas tribes?

    Another good topic for the enlightened professor to research is “the giving of daughter” and how come it was only one way traffic from Rajputs to the Moguls.

    The hint is in the phrasing used for ‘daughter’s as an object to be given or gifted.

    As they say, ‘You can put any amount of lipstick on a pig but she still remains a pig” !

  36. What happened in history has its effects on the present. Even forgetting what happened, I think it is more important that sociologists carry the narrative forward on what is happening now.
    When you have a population who are turning more and more orthodox and that religion has clear guidelines stating that its followers should not show respect to people of other religions, even has a different salutation for people from other religions [which is supposedly an insult and barely recognisable by non-muslims as stated by Zakir Naik], are not willing to make adjustments in their habits under dire circumstances [such as when a doctor needs to examine a female patient], a religion which puts blind faith before reason and aggression before negotiation on differences, then why do historians forget about the present and how do sociologists think there is going to be any syncretic culture.
    Isn’t syncretism about movement from different sides towards a common belief and ethos?
    As far as I can see in the current state, as a physician, I have noted the changes. Muslims are definitely becoming more orthodox and are moving towards Wahabbism, they are making rigidity in their beliefs rather than reason and negotiation as the mainstay of their existence in Indian society and many holy men in mosques are clearly distorting history and dividing the nation without stating the sources of their information nor requesting their listeners to verifty the information they have put out.
    I was really surprised to hear from highly educated government officials & their families from the Muslim community when they wanted some confirmation from me about some bit of Indian history that they learnt. Sources will not be revealed. I refer some books written by the very same rulers as their diaries which are available freely on the net. But they will never verify, they will blindly believe the mullahs whose only knowledge is religious scriptures rather than history or current events.

  37. How beautifully Romila Thappar has sugar coated muslim. She will never point out the miseries and destruction faced by Hindus by Muslim envaders. She has coated coercive marriage alliance of hindu queens to Muslim invaders act of religious tolerance. This entire jamat of print will not leave any stone unturned to glorify Muslim and demonise hindu. They ll go to extent to carry out their agenda no matter if they have to bring hindu gods. Would these prints jamats ever dare to publish true acts of Allah??

    • The author is known for twisting and misrepresenting Indian history / facts only to please her Italian masters.

      She has lost her footing and now trying to win traction by farting from her mouth.

  38. STUPID supporter of THE FAMILY and patently anti HINDU
    ” ROME ELA THE FAKER ” .

    For years together FAKE NARRATIVE AND PROSELYTIZING PROPAGANDA through history created by INFERTILE MINDS were imposed for political gains to complete a project by MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN RULERS.

    FAILED AND IMPOTENT NARRATIVE AS HINDUS ARE TRYING TO COME TOGETHER, SLOWLY BUT SURELY.

    There is only one PUNISHMENT for IDOL WORSHIPPER for followers of a certain community. HENCE FAKE HISTORY PERIOD.

  39. All the leftist historians and the rightist ‘historians’ of today are the two faces of the same coin if they talk of Rajputs.
    She talks of Rajput princess marrying into mughals. Was it a one way traffic? No. The Mughals and other muslim nobility married their daughters to the Rajput kings as well. One prime example being of Bibi Mubarak who was the neice of akbar and she was the wife of Man Singh ji. There are numerous other examples of such. Ex- bappa rawal, rana sanga, rathores of marwar etc who had muslim wives. And forget about the muslim concubinage. They were in plenty.

  40. All the leftist historians and the rightist ‘historians’ of today are the two faces of the same coin if they talk of Rajput history.
    She talks of Rajput princess marrying into mughals. Was it a one way traffic? No. The Mughals and other muslim nobility married their daughters to the Rajput kings as well. One prime example being of Bibi Mubarak who was the neice of akbar and she was the wife of Man Singh ji. There are numerous other examples of such. Ex- bappa rawal, rana sanga, rathores of marwar etc who had muslim wives. And forget about the muslim concubinage. They were in plenty.

  41. Romila thapar and all the leftist historians and so are the rightist ‘historians’ of today. Two faces of the same coin.
    She talks of Rajput princess marrying into mughals. Was it a one way traffic? No. The Mughals and other muslim nobility married their daughters to the Rajput kings as well. One prime example being of Bibi Mubarak who was the neice of akbar and she was the wife of Man Singh ji. There are numerous other examples of such. Ex- bappa rawal, rana sanga, rathores of marwar etc who had muslim wives. And forget about the muslim concubinage. They were in plenty.

  42. This is hilarious. Krishna bhakts demolished lord krishna janmasthaan & built a mosque as usual over it. Such magnificent krishna bhakts. Its scary that these people have ‘manufactured’ our history over the last 60 years…

  43. India is a secular state not a hindu state nor a Muslim state, those Muslims ancestors were all hindus and most of them were converted by force to Islam. Here in India we have all kinds of religions and different race..

    • Why their was limitation for force, why only 10% were converted by force not 90% , They were not converted but they accepted Islam, in mizoram and northeastern states where there Christian’s but now they are 50 to 95% percent, They are not forcefully converted but they accepted

    • Why their was limitation for force, why only 10% were converted by force not 90% , They were not converted but they accepted Islam, in mizoram and northeastern states where there Christian’s but now they are 50 to 95% percent, They are not forcefully converted but they accepted

  44. Why there is no dislike button. This platform is not open platform they just want to create propaganda and give one sided picture

  45. Poor read. Lie and distorted facts coming from the author’s fantasies. There are no historical references for these claims. Didn’t expect anything different from Romila Thapar . (In Marathi Thapa means lies). The marriages of Rajputs with Mughals were due to political compulsions. Were there any such Mughal princesses married to Rajputs? Shame for us to have our real history hidden and rewritten by these so called liberals in the name of secularism. Hindu Muslims were never at peace during the Mughal rule. Maybe the Hindus were gagged by Muslim atrocities.

  46. Who are these people who spew disdain on Romila Thapar?First educate yourself and then have a discourse.

    • Haha. If you start educating yourself with her filth, you do it at your own peril. For the longest time Info has been assuming these are real historians,but in fact they nothing but agenda pushers. She once said yudhishtiira was inspired by Ashoka.
      So much for their historical sense. Better to get ahead from their trash

    • I can safely say that ‘these people’ are professionals, well educated people, coming from different streams of society and professions, and better informed and aware than You. Maybe its time that You need to educate yourself, and compare the reality versus the tempered narrative fed to zombies like yourself for the last 60-70 years by these communist historians. Dont be ashamed of who you are, dont be ashamed of the rapes and pillaging of your ancestors by the invaders, dont be ashamed of the fact that every major temple in north India was desecrated by these barbarians. Embrace the reality, and forgive the transgressions done againt your culture and country, but dont forget. But to do that, first You need to accept the truth. And the truth is not secular. Its bitter.

    • Educate yourself about the Thapar family- full of self-serving poseurs who across generations have only worked in their interest. Then talk down to us. Don’t go by the degrees and qualifications they wear and their accents.

  47. These cheap journalists will sell their mothers and daughters for money and 2 seconds of fame.
    Which idiot will believe that the Mughals encouraged other religions?
    If at all there were muslim vaishnavas it is because they understood the greatness of Hinduism.

  48. Every religion started at some point. Why do we forget that? The issue is live and let live. In a country like India, why do Hindus are feeling so threatened by muslim minority? With having 996 million hindus and only 172 million Muslims. See the difference,who is dominating who? If you are worried about resources of this country,then there is no doubt Hindus are the biggest consumers in this country and also more educated too. And let me tell you the people everywhere on earth today began migrating from Africa first. Go and check the evolution of religion,Hinduism is not a universal religion. So,stop blaming religion of people. Your ancestors at some point were following a different religion. There is always been someone who had started a new religion. No Gods wrote their religious scriptures,its the man who did.

    Now,there are many who are blaming Mughals,Delhi Dynasty Rulers or the British Empire for abusing and assaulting of Hindus and destroying beautiful Hindu dominated India. But, if Hindus were so great and have maximum population,then why don’t you guys stopped them from coming in India, why you became slaves for them? Their armies have Hindu men. Why do Hindus even joined their armies if they so badly hated invaders?

    • To your point about “996 million hindus and only 172 million Muslims”….from experience and observation it is a fact that once muslims cross 25% of the population it will become unlivable for others and will go the way of Pakistan…

  49. didnt the scroll , the wire, news laundary , news clickin, india forum etc . etc.. agree to publish your peiece ????

  50. Muslim Krishna bhakt, the article speaks so much about it and yet not even one Muslim bhakat was cited, madam Thapar, the only muslim Krishna Bhakt we know was Raskhan, so if you want to project Muslims as secular peace loving race, you count on Raskhan to be the ambassador of peace and love among the Muslim race. So if one Raskhan is enough for you to project Muslims being lovely brothers, then how should we project Muslims when we have not one but numerous Babars, Ghjaznis,Aurangzebs, tughlaqs, khiljis etc who deserceated our symbols of faith, our temples to impose their beliefs, their thoughts and their religious superiority on us. And yet they were peace loving brothers to you.
    I am so astonished at your projection of history to be one sided , History is History far away from emotions of good or bad, it is the reality of the past , be good or bad, you cannot wrap it into a package that suits your narrrative and ideology and serve it as a beautiful dish.
    History is blatant truth which is both sweet and bitter. You cannot turn the bitterness it has into a sweet candy. Be true to yourself.
    The dark reality and blatant truth is that precense of a mosque just next to all major Hindu temple sites such as Kashi Vishwanath, Ayodhya and Mathura is not the mark of brotherhood, but to our dismay the hatred that our so called brothers had for our beliefs, our traditions, our culture that they brutally brought down all the major symbols of our Faith at all major places of worships. Nalanda was not burnt for promoting or invoking peace, but to bring down the pride of Hindus and show them that we are idiots, ill learned fellows worshipping idols.
    So it was basically an exercise to kill our sense of pride, kill our beliefs and impose themselves as a superior class and this time it was superiority based on religion.
    So madam request you not to serve your ideology to us.
    You might be a renowned historian, but we are commoners, who are both participant and spectators to history being created

  51. HI Romila ,

    Please set a example by leading through marrying your daughters to other religion people with kattawadis. Then after that rewrite after 1 year, your experience of Mughal Krishan Bhakthas.. ..

    -John Anil
    Truth Analyzer

  52. Because we were defeated we had to accommodate.
    Unfortunately it was the Rajput Rajahs barring venerable Rana Pratap were at the forefront of Muslim Army and was used wherever Hindu kings started giving resistance.
    Many Hindu warlords fell believing that Raja ManSingh. Raja Pratap Aditya in Bengal was one such example.
    Just for their political gain over their own countrymen and coreligionists they made alliance with Mughals instead of Hindu kings.

  53. time to fight against Islamic and communist collaboration against the peace of humanity and mankind…
    Romila thapar and theprint shame on you both for pro Islamic propaganda..

  54. Such a bigoted article….. I am really tired of these people who have been just brushing the issues under the carpet.
    These are the true enemies of our nation as books written by them are read by innocent minds and such is the impact of this bigotry that we have been made to feel ashamed of our own culture.
    Enough is enough..!!!
    Let’s raise our voices for our books to be changed and to highlight the true history of our nation.

  55. Such a bigoted article. I am really tired of these people who have been just brushing the issues under the carpet.
    These are the true enemies of our nation as books written by them are read by innocent minds and such is the impact of this bigotry that we have been made to feel ashamed of our own culture.
    Enough is enough..!!!
    Let’s raise our voices for our books to be changed and to highlight the true history of our nation.

  56. I would like to ask Romila to name at least one high placed muslim during muslim rule who gave his daughter in marriage to a Hindu prince. So much for muslim love to Hindus. What evidence Romila was referring to prove muslim love to Krishna. word kafir is of no Indian origin. Can Romila quote one text or one verse of holy quran to respect other religious beliefs as equal. You can quote at least a thousand such verses in Hindi books. Do not attempt to compare religiousfreedom of belief with religious chownists

  57. आप को जबाव देना ? सीधी आलोचना है बर्दाश्त कर सकते हो, है हिम्मत तो छापना।

    सर्व प्रथम रोमिला थापर जी को उनके शुभ कार्यों के लिए शुभकामनाएं। एक समय आयेगा अगली पीढ़ी सत्य को समझ कर आपको याद करेगी । मालूम नहीं आपके जीवित रहते यह सम्भव होगा या नहीं?

    इस लेख में किस का महिमा मंडन करने का प्रयास किया गया है और क्यों? विश्व गवाह है , आक्रांताओं ने वही किया जो उन्हें भाया , जिसे जीता , जैसे जीता ,उस की संस्कृति का विनाश किया , अपने धर्म को जबरदस्ती थोपा ।। उनका मुख्य उद्देश्य लूटमार ,मारथाड, गुलाम बनाने, औरतों को लौड़ी बना अपने देश में बेचने तक सीमित रहा।

    भारत मे मुगलो को मानसिंह, जयसिंह, जयचंद जैसे गद्दारों ने अपने व्यक्तिगत स्वार्थ के लिए टिकाया।
    वृन्दावन , श्रीकृष्ण की आध्यात्मिक रास लीलाओं को इन अय्याश मुगलो ने अपनी कुत्सित कामवासना पर पर्दा डालने के लिए किया ।मीना बाजार क्या थे ? लेखिका उस सत्य को लिख सकती है?
    अगर उन्हें धर्म से लगाव रहा होता तो मंदिरों को तोड कर मस्जिदें न बनायी होती । जिस राजपूत ने आत्मसम्मान बेच दिया वह क्या है? राणा प्रताप पद्मिनी,,राजा दाहिर की दोनों बेटियां और बहुत से उदाहरण है जिन्होंने मरना पसंद किया अधर्मी होने पहले। कान खोल कर सुन लो ,और पढ़ लो ,मुगल और अंग्रेज सिर्फ और सिर्फ सफेदपोश लुटेरे थे और कुछ नहीं ,भारत को लूटने के अलावा उनका कोई लेना-देना नहीं था। जो शासक होगा वह वहीइतिहास लिखाता है जो वह चाहता है,यह रीत न बदलीं है न बदलेगी। चारण भाट रागदरबारी अपने आश्रयदाता के गुणगान और चरण वंदना ही करतें हैं ।

    धन्य है आप सब , लिखने वाले भी और छापने वाले भी ।

  58. In this essay, didn’t find much about any significant contribution from Muslim leaders in learning about Krishna or Bhakti, forget about insignificant masses. Not sure about the objective of this work also, is the author trying to say Muslim leaders wanted to some experiments but couldn’t. Very abstract work.

  59. this kind of writing reflects ‘ conclude first ,look for bits and pieces of facrs stitch together a story then peddle your agenda ‘

  60. Diarrhea of words, constipation of info! D write up tells absolutely nothing about Krishna bhakta Muslims, for dt matter it throws light upon nothing at all.

  61. It is visible that the author has laboured hard to peddle her pet narratives yet again that Muslim rulers, per se, were not bigots, all of them were not cruel destroyers of Hinduism and in fact, many of them had married Rajput women because of their love for cultural attractions. The author in her enthusiasm to portray Islam and Allah as benign forms has resorted to falsehood by observing that lower castes, even though, are equal in the eyes of Allah, were not so in the eyes of the upper castes. She could have been well appreciated has she also explained that all creatures not lower castes alone are considered to be manifestation of the same supreme self in Hinduism. She has again tried to give a sugar coat to Islam when she argues that it is not proper to paint all ethnic groups such as Arabs or Afghans or Turks or Mughals as Muslims even though all of them have brought in untold miseries, destructions to the Hindus and Hindu civilisational values.

  62. It is visible that the author, Romila Thapar, has laboured hard to peddle her pet narratives yet again that Muslim rulers, per se, were not bigots, all of them were not cruel destroyers of Hinduism in India and in fact, many of them had married Rajput women not due to political convenience but because of their love for cultural attractions of Hinduism. The author in her enthusiasm to portray Islam and Allah as benign forms has resorted to falsehood while explaining that lower castes, even though, are equal in the eyes of Allah, were not so in the eyes of the upper castes. She could have been well appreciated has she also in the same breath explained that all creatures not human beings alone are considered to be manifestation of the same supreme self in Hinduism. She has again tried to give a sugar coat to Islam when she argues that it is not proper to paint all ethnic groups such as Arabs or Afghans or Turks or Mughals as Muslims even though all of them have brought in untold miseries, destructions to the Hindus and Hindu civilisational values.

    • Even when I was a child a Kabuli wala was considered a money lender and in good terms one who brought goodies to children. They were considered loyal friends in history. Whatever happened to all that narrative?

    • Today, people of India have seen through the so-called ‘secular’ narrative being peddled in India by this group for the last seven decades notwithstanding the rapes, miseries, destructions of the places of worship and conversions of Hindus that have been brought in at the edge of the swords of the all the Muslim rulers leaving aside a very miniscule of rulers who were less atrocious. But, old habits die hard!

    • Do you have any proof to reject her claims with proper quotation, citations and references. If not then it is futile to just throw jignoistic sentiments. Be professional and debate with facts, otherwise you are no more than an ordinary hate monger.

    • After all, we are reading ThePrint! What more do you expect. These news agencies are first in the line to spread partial information to instigate hate among the others.

    • I don’t know about Romila Thapar, but I know that during the Mughal time (Akbar particularly) there was mutual understanding and respect among Mughal courtiers. There’s once when a pundit recite some mantra. Rahim pointed out and corrected his mantra.
      https://youtu.be/xkwFcP7GfAM

  63. Some good points here…
    “Modern historians have called them Muslim Vaishnavas, but they did not call themselves that. They called themselves Krishna bhaktas. Their intention pointed to their identity and possibly reflected far more than religious devotion. It was a cultural indicator of a substantial kind, yet we hardly give it attention.”

    In effect, (religious) secularism should simply mean that each religion accepts each of the other religion on as is where is basis. Yu can’t do it with laws.
    The leaders of these various religions should repeatedly announce to its followers that “there is not only one way (their own) to reach GOD but there are many ways. What the other religions follow are also paths that lead to GOD. Those who practice religions other than ours are also believers of God”. Tell the followers that there is only one God with many names…call it/he/she by any name. Teach the kids this in Schools of all types.

  64. Do muslims believe in secularism ? Why only Hindus talk about secularism all the time? Is it a way to keep Hindus ashamed otherwise? Do Hindus have no right to feel proud of themselves, their culture, their philosophy, their spirituality and their way of life even in india ? Do they have to adjust to islam, christianity while islam and christianity dictate, distort, make fun of Hinduism and convert gullible? Romila Thapar is a shame.

    • Well said sir. Their version of perpetual appeasement. Who of the royal family turned Krishn bhakt? Will that wash the butchery and mayhem of rest of them.

  65. Again secularism at peak , Muslims are great and Hi dus should convert the n to Islam with the blessings from Print & Liberals.

  66. I was wondering from long time , how come Shekhar Guptha has not included famous Anti Hindu and Anti National Romala Thapar, now she also joined in The Print , few more Urban Naxals will start teaching Hi dus , how beautiful Muslim invaders were , and all Hindus should give their daughters to Muslims and convert in to Islam to make India a true secular Nation.

    • Absolutely. The narrative has reached toxic proportions. Muslims are such pure souls with good intentions and there is so much in-fighting among Hindus. This sly, subtle dig at Hindu tradition and bootlicking of Islamist ideology is so very typical of everything that The Print stands for. And then they say, freedom of expression is being stifled.

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