A Bharat Petroleum Corp. oil refinery in the Mahul area of Mumbai | Bloomberg
A Bharat Petroleum Corp. oil refinery in the Mahul area of Mumbai | Bloomberg
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Mumbai: A rebound in oil prices poses a risk to India’s benign inflation expectations that last week allowed the central bank to deliver its second rate cut of 2019.

With crude at a five-month high, many investors are turning less confident about the Reserve Bank of India’s pace of monetary easing, though a slowdown in economic growth and subdued inflation still support an easing bias.

The low headline print gave Governor Shaktikanta Das and the rate-setting panel the space to cut rates by 25 basis points each in February and April to support the economy. Some economists see room for one more reduction provided food and fuel costs don’t spike. Data due Friday will probably show headline inflation quickened to 2.8 per cent last month from 2.5 per cent in February.

“The recent rise in crude prices, if sustained,” could pose a challenge to both economic growth and inflation outlook, said Dharmakirti Joshi, chief economist with Crisil Ltd. in Mumbai.

Forecast for Brent, the benchmark for half the world’s oil, has been lifted on the back of production cuts, and the RBI sees prices being pushed up further should the U.S.-China trade tensions be resolved swiftly. The two sides are nearing a trade deal, with talks aimed at clinching one within the next month continuing.

A recent study by the central bank showed a $10 rise from $65 a barrel will lead to a 49 basis points increase in headline inflation, while a similar increase from $55 a barrel would give around a 58 basis-point boost to headline inflation.

Rupee Offset

Oil’s charge higher has also offset any gains from a rising currency on imported inflation. The rupee climbed 2.3 per cent against the dollar in March, making it the best performer in Asia. The currency is up more than 7 per cent from its October low, leading to a view among economists like HSBC Holdings Plc’s Chief India Economist Pranjul Bhandari that some of the impact from the rising currency could help ease inflation.

Still, others see the rupee’s role being countered by oil.

“It appears on balance that the recent hardening of oil prices would have negated the impact of rupee appreciation to a large extent,” said Gaurav Kapur, chief economist at IndusInd Bank Ltd. in Mumbai.

Also read: Low inflation gives RBI room to support economy, says former governor Bimal Jalan


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  1. Oil has risen about 42% this year, mainly on supply concerns, starting with production cuts by OPEC and geopolitical risks with some suppliers, including the sanctions on Iran. The only silver lining is the global economic slowdown, which will cool consumption. No room for complacency by the RBI on inflation. Its pinprick rate cuts are in any case not what will breathe life into the economy.


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